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A LATIN DICTIONAKY

LEWIS AND SHORT

A

LATIN DICTIONARY

FOUNDED ON ANDREWS' EDITION OF

FREUNDS LATIN DICTIONARY

EEVISED, ENLAKGED, AND IN GEEAT PAET EEWEITTEN

BT

CHABLTON T. LEWIS, Ph.D.

OXFORD

AT-THE CLAHENDON PRESS

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Oxford is a trade mark of Oxford University Press

Published in the United States by Oxford University Press, New York

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without theprior permission of Oxford University Press

ISBN 0-19-864201-6

First edition 1870. Impression of 1984

Printed in Great Britain

at the University Press, Oxford

by David Stanford

Printer to the University

HAROLD B. LF

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ADVERTISEMENT.

The translation of Dr. Freund's great Latin-German Dictionary, edited by the late E. A. Andrews, LL.D., and published in 1850, has been from that time in exten- sive use throughout England and America. It has had for competitors, indeed, in the schools and colleges of both countries, only works which are substantially reprints or abridgments of itself. As it has thus been the standard book of refer- ence of its kind for a generation of scholars, its merits need no description here.

Meanwhile, great advances have been made in the sciences on which lexicography depends. Minute research in manuscript authorities has largely restored the texts of the classical writers, and even their orthography. Philology has traced the growth and history of thousands of words, and revealed meanings and shades of meaning which were long unknown. Syntax has been subjected to a profounder analysis. The history of ancient nations, the private life of their citizens, the thoughts and beliefs of their writers have been closely scrutinized in the hght of accumulating information. Thus the student of to-day may justly demand of his Dictionary far more than the scholarship of thirty years ago could furnish. The present work is the result of a series of earnest efforts by the Publishers to meet this demand.

It was seen fifteen years ago that at least a very thorough revision of the Dictionary was needed. It was therefore submitted to the author of the original work, Dr. William Freund, who carefully revised it, rewrote a few of the less satis- factory articles, corrected errors, and supphed about two thousand additions, mainly in the early pages. The sheets were then placed in the hands of Professor Henry Drisler, LL.D., to be edited ; but that eminent scholar soon advised us that a reconstruction of the work was desirable, such as he could not command leisure to make. They were afterwards delivered to the present editors to be used freely, and in combination with all other appropriate sources, in compiling a Latin Dictionary which should meet the advanced requirements of the times. The results of their unremitting labours for several years are now given to the public.

The first 216 pages (words beginning with A) are the work of Professor Charles Short, LL.D., of Columbia College. The remainder of the book, from page 217 to page 2019 inclusive, is the work of Mr. Charlton T. Lewis. While each editor is

* ADVERTISEMENT.

alone and wholly responsible for the pages which he has prepared, Mr. Lewis requests us to acknowledge the indebtedness of the book to contributions from other scholars, incorporated by him with his own collections. It is proper to refer, in particular. to the valuable services of Gustavus Fischek, LL.D., of New Brunswick, whose learning and research have given to many articles a fulness and thoroughness hardly attempted before in a Latin Dictionary (see, for example, the words contra, 2. cum, sic, sisto, solvo, suus, tum, tunc, volo, and others) ; and of Professor George M. Lane, LL.D., of Harvard College, who has kindly examined a large part of the book in proof, and has freely communicated, in his suggestions and corrections, the ripe fruits of his scholarship.

New Yoek, March 1, 1879.

ORTHOGRAPHICAL INDEX.

A list of the principa! words which are variously spelled in MSS. and editions. From Brambach's "Alds to Latin Orthography. "

(In most cases the forra approved by Brambach is that preferred by recent editors; but thexe tre still several words

on which high authorities differ frora him or from one another. For particulars, see the Lexicon.)

ab in compounds before t (for j), h. b, d, I, n, r, s ; abs before c, q, t ; as before p (asporto) ; a before m and v ; au before /(aufero, aufugio; but afui, v. absum).

abicio, better than abjicio.

abscisio, better than abcisio.

absum, afui, afore, etc. (not abfui).

ad in compounds before t (for j), h, b, d,f m, n, q, v; ac before c, sometimes q (bet- ter adquiro, etc); ag or ad before g, but a or ad before gn, sp, sc, st ; ad or al be- fore l ; ad (less prop. an) before n ; ap (less freq. ad) before p ; ad or ar before r ; ador as before s ; at before t (rare- ly ad).

adicio, better than adjicio.

adsimulo, better than adsimilo.

adulescens (subst), better than adolescens; so adulescentia, etc.

aeneus, aenus, better than ahe-.

aequipero, not aequiparo.

alioqui, better than alioquin.

aliuude or alicunde.

allucinor or hallu-; old form halucinor.

ancora, not anchora.

antemna or antenna.

antiquus, old; anticus, that is infront.

anulus, anellus, not ann-.

apud ; also (less freq. ) aput.

arcesso or accerso.

atqui, better than atquin.

auctor, auctoritas, not aut-.

audacter, not audaciter.

autumnus, not auctumnus.

baca, better than bacca.

baccar, better than bacchar.

ballista, better than balista.

balneum or balineum.

barritus, not baritus, barditus.

belua, not bellua.

benedico, benefacio, or separat6ly, bene dico, bene facio.

benevolus, beneficus, etc, better than beni- volus, benificus.

bipartitus and bipertitus.

braca, not bracca.

bracchium, not brachium.

bucina, not buccina; so buclnator.

caecus, not coecus.

caelebs, not coelebs.

caelum, caelestis, etc, not coel-

caementura, not cementum.

caenum, not coenum.

caerimonia or caeremonia, not cer-.

caespes, not cespes.

caestus, not cestus.

candela, not candella.

cauda, vulgar form coda.

causa, better than caussa.

cena, not coena.

ceteri, not caeteri.

cheragra or chiragra.

circumeo or circueo, circumitus or circul- tus.

coclea, better than cochlea.

coicio, bettcr than conicio, coiicio.

comissor or comisor.

comminus. not cominus.

comprehendo, bcttcr than compreudo.

condicio, not conditio.

conpcto,notcouupcto; socouexio, concxus.

conitor, not connitor.

coniveo, not connlveo.

coujunx, bettcr tban conjux.

contio, not concio.

conubium, nol connnbium.

convicium, not convilium.

cottidie or cotidip, not quotidie

culleus, culleum. not culous, ciileum.

cum, or archaic quom, not quum.

cum in composition: com before b,m,p;

con before c, d,f g, i (forj), n, q. s, t, v ;

but co before gn, before n in conecto,

coniveo, etc, and before vowels and h

(except comedo, comes, comitor, comi-

tium, and their derivv.); hence cogo for

coago; cor before r ; con or col before l. cumba, better than cymba. cumque, not cunque. cuppes, better than cupes ; so cuppedo,

cuppediae. cupressus, not cypressus. Cybebe or Cybele. damma, not datna. Dareus, better than Darius. deicio, better than dejicio. denuntio, not denuncio. deprehendo or deprendo. derigo and dirigo aro to be distinguished;

v. these words. describo and discribo are to be distin-

guished; v. these words. designo and dissigno are to be distin-

guished; v. designo. deversorium, better tban devor-, not diver-

sorium. dicio, not ditio.

dilectus (a military levy), not delectus. discidium, not dissidium. discribo, discriptio, v. describo. disicio (dissicio), better than disjicio. dissignator (an undertaker, etc), not desig-

nator. dumetum or dummetum, dumosus or dum-

mosus. dumtaxat, not duntaxat. dupondius, later form rlipondius. eculeus, better than equuleus. edo, esum, better than essum. edyllium or idyllium. ei (interjection), not hel. eicio, better than ejicio. elleborus, better than helleborus. eino, emptum, not emtum ; so emptio,

emptor, etc epistula, not epistola ; but epistolicus (=

tfflffToXlKOf).

Erinys, not Erinnys.

erus, era, erilis, not herus, etc

Euander, Euandrus, not Evander.

euhoe (= eioi), not evoe.

ex before vowels and h; e or ex before

consonants. ex in composition, before vowels, and h, c,

p (except epotus, epoto), q. t, and s ; the

s is better retained, e. g. exsanguis, better

than exanguis, etc. ; e before 6, d, g, i

(forj), l, m, n, r, v; e/before/. exim or exin.

eximo, exemptum, not exemtum. faenum (vulgar form fenum), not foenum. faenus, better than fenus, not foenus ; so

faenero, faenerator, etc fecunditas, fecundo, fecundus, not foecun-

ditas, etc fetidus, feteo, fetor, better than foetidus,

etc fetus (subst. and partic). not foetus. futtilis, bettcr than futilis. gneeum, not gestinr. Gaetuli and (Jctuli. fienava, not Geneva.

genetlvus. genptrix. not genitivus, genitrix. glaeba. bctter th;in gleba. grat is and gratis. Hadria, Hadriaticus, Hadrianus, not Adria,

etc. Hadmmctuui, Hadrumetinus, not Adrume-

tum, etc [edus.

haedus, not hoedus, aedug. Rustic form

Halaesa, Halaesus, not Halesa, etc.

Halicarnasus and Alicarnasus.

Hamilcar, not Amilcar.

Hannibal, not Annibal.

harena, harenosus, better than arena, etc.

hariola, hariolatio, hariolor, hariolus, aud ariola, ariolatio, ariolus.

harundo, better than arundo.

haruspex, better than aruspex.

hand and haut ; also, before consonants, hau.

haveo and aveo.

hebenus, better than ebenus.

hedera, better than edera.

helluo, helluatio, helluor, better than he luo, etc

hercisco and ercisco.

heri and (in Quintilian's tlme) here.

Hiberes, Hiberia, Hiberus, not Iberes, etc.

bolus, better than olus; archaic helus.

humo, humus, not umo, umus.

idcirco and iccirco.

ilico, not illico.

immo, not Imo.

in primis, inprimis, and Imprlmls.

inclitus and inclutus, not inclytus.

incoho, better than inchoo; not incoo.

indutiae, not induciae.

inicio, better than injicio.

intellego, intellegentia, not intelligo, etc.

internecio, better than internicio.

inunguo, not inungo.

Kalendae, better than Calendae.

Karthago and Carthago.

lacrima, not lacruma, lachrima, or lachry- ma.

lamina, lamna, and lammina.

lanterna, better than laterna.

lepor and lepos.

levis, not laevis.

libet, libens; archaic lubet, lubens; so II bido.

littera, better than litera; so litterula.

litus, not littus.

maereo, maeror, maestus, maestitia, not moereo, etc

maledicus, maleficus, malevolus, better than malivolus, etc

mille, plur. milia, better than millia.

milliesand milies, better than milliens, etc.

multa, not mulcta; so multo.

murra, not myrrha.

myrtum, myrtus, not murtum, etc

navus, better tban gnavus.

ne (particlo of afflrmation), not nae.

neglego, neglegentia, not negligo, etc.

nenia, not naenia.

nequiquam, better than nequicquam.

numraus, not numus.

numquam and nunquam.

nuntio, nuntius, not nuncio, etc.

ob in composition, before t (for j), h, b, d, l, n, r, s, t, v (but before s and t frequently written op) ; also before vowels, except in obsolesco; ob, sometimes om, before m; oc before c; o/before// og before g ; op before p ; but b is dropped in omitto, operio, ostcndo (for obstendo).

obicio, beltor tban objicio.

oboedio, not obodio.

obscenus. bettor thau obscaenus ; not ob scoenus.

obstipesco, better thau obstupesco.

opilio, botter tban upilio.

otium, otiosus, not ocium, ctc.

paclex, belter tbnn polex; not pellex.

pacne, not pone nor poerie.

paenitet, not poonitet.

paenula, not penula.

1'arnasus, 1'arnasius, not Taruassus, etc

VI

ORTHOGRAPHICAL INDEX.

paulus, better than paullus.

pejero, better than pejuro; not perjuro.

penna and pinna (for the distinction, v. the

Lexicon, & v penna). per in composition is unchanged, but ?•

may become l before l (pellicio, cf. pcl-

lego), or may fall out in compounds of

jus and juro, v. pejero. percontor, better thau percunctor; so per-

contatio. perlego, not pellego nor pelligo. plebs and plebes, not plebis (nom. sing.). pretium, not precium. proelium, not praelium. proicio, better than projicio. promunturium, not promontoriun». protinus, better than protenus. pulcher, not pulcer. quamquam and quanquam. quattuor, better than quatuor. querela, better than querella. quicquam, better than quidquanx quidquid and quicquid. quotiens, better than quoties. raeda, better than reda; not rheda. recipero, better than recupero. reicio, better than rejicio. religio, religiosus. not relligio. nibigo, not rubigo.

sacculum, not seculum.

saepes, saepio, not sepes, etc.

saeta, not seta,

sarisa, better than sarissa.

satura, later form satira; not satyra.

scaena, not scena; so scaenicus, ctc.

sepulcrum, better than sepulchrum.

sescenti, not sexcenti.

setius, not secius (v. secus).

singillatim, not singulatim.

sollemnis, not sollennis, sollempnis.

somnulentus, better than somnolentus.

stuppa, not stupa, stippa; so stuppeus.

suadela, not suadella.

sub in composition, before vowels and h, i (for/), 6, d, l, n, s, t, v; suc before c ; suf before/; sug before g; sum or sub be- fore m ; sup beiore p (rarely sub) ; sur or sub before r; sus (for subs) in suso- pio, suscito, suspendo, sustineo, susten to, sustuli; su in suspicio, suspiro.

subicio, better than subjicio.

suboles, not subolis, soboles.

subsicivus, not subsecivus.

sucus, not succus.

suspicio, better than suspitio.

taeter, not teter.

tamquam and tanquam.

tingo, not tinguo.

totiens, better than totiea

traicio and transicio, better than trajicio.

trans in composition before vowels and 6,

c,/,g,p, r, t, v; tran usually before s,

always before sc ; tram or tra before t

(for t or,?'), d. I, m, n. tropaeum and trophacum. tus, not thus.

ubicumque, better than ubicunque. Ulixes, not Ulysses. umerus, not humerus. umesco, umor, umidus, etc., not humesco,

etc. unguo and ungo. urgeo, not urgueo. utcumque, better than utcunque. utrimque, not utrinque. venum do and venundo. Vergilius, not Virgilius. Verginius, not Virginius. vertex. not vortex. vicesimus, more usual than vigeslmus;

not vicensimus. vilicus, vilico, vilicatus, not villicus, etc virectum, not viretum. Volcanus, not Vulcanus. vulgus, not volgua vulnus, not volnus. vultus. noi vcltu*.

ABBREVIATIONS

CSED IN REFERRING TO

ANCIENT AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS.

J8S- The dates are given on the authority of Teuflfel, in his History of Roman Literature; but those marked (?) are doubtful

or conjectural.

Aem. Mac. Aemilius Macer, poet, obiit, B.C. 14

Afran. Lucius Afranius, writer of com-

edy, flor. " 110

Aggen. Aggenus Urbicus, xvriter on hus-

bandry, "(?)AD.400

IThe ancient writers on survey- ing ; esp. Frontinus, Balbus, Hyginus, Siculus Flaccus, and Aggenus Urbicus. Albin. C. Pedo Albinovanus, poet, " " 28

Alcim. Alcimus Avitus, Chr. writer, ob. AD. 523

Aldh. Aldhelrr.us, Bishop qf Salisbury,

England, " " 709

" Ep. , Epistula ad Acircium, de metris, etc. Laud. Virg., De Laudibus Virginitatis.

Alfen. P. Alfenus Varus, JCtus, fl. (?}B.C. 38

Ambros. Ambrosius, Chr. writer, ob. A.D.397

" De Cain et AbeL " De Fide, De Fide Libri V ad Gratianum

Augustum. " De Isaac et AnimS. " De Noe et Arca. " Ep., Epistulae. " Hexaem., Hexaemeron. " in Luc, Expositio Evangelii secundum

Lucam, Libri X. " in Psa., Enarrationes in XII Psalmos. " Ofl'.,DeOfficiis.

Amm. Ammianus Marcellinus, hist. " " 400

Ampel. L Ampelius, historian, fl. (?) " 200

Anthol. Lat. Anthologia Latina, a collection

of Epigrams, Inscriptions, and Fragments in verse, by P. Bur- mann ; edited also by Meyer and by Riese.

Apic. Apicius Caelius, writer on cook-

ery, « " 25

But the work De Re Coquinaria, ascribed to Api- cius, is a compilation of a later age.

App. Lucius Appuleius (Apvi.), philos., " " 160

" Apol., Apologia. or De Magia. " Asclep.. Asclepius, or Trismegistus. " Dogm. Plat., De Dogmate Platonis. " Flor., Florida. " Herb., Herbarium, a work of the fourth cen-

tury A.D., falsely ascribed to Appuleius. " Mag., De Magia, or Apologia. " Met. or M., Metamorphoses. " Mund. , De Mundo. " Trism. , Trismegistus.

Arn. Arnobius Afer, Chr. writer, " " 295

Ascon Q. Asconius Pedianus, gramm., ob. " 88

Asin. C. Asinius Pollio, orator and hist, " " 5

At. Cap. Ateius Capito, grammarian, fl. " 14

Att. or Acc. L Attius or Accius, writer of

tragedy, " B.C. 135

Atta, T. Quinctius Atta, writer ofcom-

edy, " "80

Auct. Aetn. Auctor Aetnae (perh. Lucilius

Junior), "(?)A.D. 60

Auct. B. Afr. Auctor Belli Africani, " B.C. 50

Auct. B. Alex. Auctor Belli Alexandrini ( prob.

Aulus Hirtius), " " 50

Auct. B. G. 8. Auctor de Bello Gallico libri viii,

in continuation of Caesars commentarii (prob. Aulus Hir- tius), " " 50

Auct B. Hisp. Auctor Belli Hispaniensis, " " 60

Auct. Her. or) ( Auctor ad Herennium, v. Corni-

Auct. ad Her. j ( flcius.

Auct. Pervig. Ven. Auctor Pervigilii Veneris, flor. (?) A.D. 150

Auct. Priap. Auctor Priapeorura, v. Priap.

Aug. Aurelius Augustinus, Chr. writer, obiit, " 430

" Acad.,Contra Academicos.

" Civ. Dei or C. D., De Civitate Dei.

" De Doctr. Christ., De Doctrina Christiana.

" Ep. , Epistulae.

" Mor. Manich., De Moribus Manichaeorum.

" Music, De Musicft.

" Retract., Retractationes.

" Serm., Sermones.

" Trin., De Trinitate.

August. Caesar Octavianus Augustus, " " 13

Aur. Vict. Sextus Aurelius Victor, hist, fl. " 360

" Caes. , De Caesaribus.

" Epit., Epitome de Caesaribus.

" Orig. , Origo Gentis Romanae.

" Vir. 111., De Viris Illustribus. Aus. D. Magnus Ausonius, poet, ob. " 390

" Caes., De XII Caesaribus. " Ecl, Eclogarium. " Edyl. , Edyllia, or Idyllia. " Ep., Epistulae. " Ephem., Ephemeris. " Epigr., Epigrammata. " Epit., Epitaphia. " Grat. Act., Gratiarum Actio. " Idyll., Idyllia, or Edyllia. " Parent. , Parentalia. " Per., Periochae. " Prof, Professores. " Sap., Sapientes. " Urb., Ordo Nobilium Crbium.

Avien. R. Festus Avienus, poet, " " 370

" Descr. Orb., Descriptio Orbis Terrae, or ne-

piriyt](Ti?.

" Or. Mar. , Ora Maritima.

" Perieg., Descriptio Orbis Terrae, or nepnj-

7*1 <ny.

Boetb. Anicius Manl. Torq. Severinus

Boetiusor Boethius, pAifos., " " 525 " Anal., Analytica. " Consol., De Consolatione. " Mus., De Musica. " Porphyr., Dialogi in Porphyrium. " Top., De Differentiis Topicis.

Brut. M. Junius Brutus, correspondent

ofCicero, " B.C.

Caecil. Statius Caecilius, writer of com-

edy, fl. " 180

Cael. Aur. Caelius Aurelianus, physician, " (?) A. D. 420

" Acut., Acutae Passiones. " Tard., Tardae Passiones.

Caes. Caius Julius Caesar, historian, ob. 15. C. 11

" B. C, Bellum Civile. " B. G., Bellum Gallicum.

Callistr. Callistratus, JCtus, fl. A.D.200

Calp. Calpurnius Siculus, poet, "(?) " 55

" Ecl. , Eclogae. Capitol. Julius Capitolinus, biographer, " (?) " 320

" Balb.,VitaBalbini.

" Gord., Vita Gordiani.

" Max., Vita Maximi.

" Maxim., Vita Maximini.

Cass. Hem. L Cassius Hemina, historian, " B.C. 140

Cassiod. Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus,

historian, ob. A. D. 575

" Chron , Chronicon.

VIU

Cassiod. (cont. ). Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus,

historian, obiit, A.D. 575

" Complex., Complexiones in Epistulas Apo-

stolicas. " De Anim., De Anima. " Hist., Gothorum Historia. " Hist. EccL, Historia Ecclesiastica. " Inst. Div. Litt., Lnstitutio Divinarum Lit-

terarum. " Var. , Variarum Libri XII.

Cato, M. PorciusCato, orator and hist., " B.C. 149

" R. R. , De Re Rustica.

ABBREVIATIONS.

Cat. or Catull. C. Valerius Catullus, poet,

Cels. Aurel. Cornelius Celsus, physic. ,

Censor. Censorinus, grammarian,

Charis. Flav. Sosipater Charisius, gram-

marian.

Cic. or C. M. Tullius Cicero, orator and

philosopher, " Acad. or Ac, Academicae Quaestiones. " ad Brut., ad M. Brutum Epistulae. " Aem. Scaur., Oratio pro Aemilio Scauro. " Agr., Orationes de Lege Agraria. " Am., De Amicitia, or Laelius. " Arat. , Aratus.

" Arch., Oratio pro A. Licinio Archia. " Att., Epistulae ad Atticum. " Balb., Oratio pro L. Corn. Balbo. " Brut., Brutus sive de Claris Oratoribus. " Caecin. , Oratio pro Caecina. " Cael., Oratio pro M. Caelio. " Cat., Orationes m Catilinam. " Cat. M., Cato Major, or De Senectute. " Clu., Oratio pro Cluentio. " Deiot., Oratio pro Rege Deiotaro. " DeOr., DeOratore. " Div., Ds Divinatione ad M. Brutum. " Div. in Caecil., Divinatio in Caecilium. " Dom., Oratio de Domo sua. " Fam., Epistulae ad Familiares. " Fat.,DeFato. " Fin., De Finibus. V Flac. or Fl., Oratio pro L Flacco. " Font. or Fontei., Oratio pro M. Fonteio. " Fragm. , Fragmenta. " Har. Resp., Oratio de Haruspicum Respon-

sis. " Her., Auctor ad Herennium. " Imp. Fomp., Oratio de Imperio Cn. Pom-

pei, or Pro Lege Manilia. " Inv., De Inventione Rhetorica. " Lael., Laelius, or De AmicitiA. " Leg, I)e Legibus. " Lig, Oratio pro Ligario. " Manil., Oratio pro Lege Manilia, or De

Imperio Cn. Pompei. " Marcell., Oratio pro Marcello. " Mil., Oratio pro Milone. ' " Mur., Oratio pro L. Murena. " N. D., De Deorum Naturi. " Off.,DeOfficiis.

" Opt. Gen., De Optimo Genere Oratorum. " Or., Orator ad M. Brutura. " Par. or Parad.. Paradoxa Stoicorum. " Part. Or., De Partitione Oratoria. " Phil., Orationes Philippicae in M. Anto-

nium. " Pis. , Oratio in Pisonem. " Planc. , Oratio pro Plancio. " Prov. Cons., De Provinciia Consularibus. " Quinct. or Quint., Oratio pro P. Quinctio,

or Quinto. " Q. Fr. or ad Q. Fr., Epistulae ad Q. Fratrem. " Rab. Perd., Oratio pro Rabirio Perduello-

nis Reo. " Rab. Post., Oratio pro Rabirio Posthumo. " Red. Quir., Oratio post Reditum ad Qui-

rites. " Red. in Sen., Oratio post Reditum in Se-

natu. " Rep, DeRePublica. " Rosc. Am., Oratio pro Quinto Roscio Ame-

rino. " Rosc. Com., Oratio pro Sexto Roscio Co-

moedo. " Scaur. , Oratio pro M. Aemilio Scauro. " Sen., De Senectute, or Cato Major. " Sest. or Sext., Oratio pro Sestio. " Sull., Oratio pro Sulla. " Tim.. Timaeus, or De Cniverso. " Tog. Cand., Oratio in Senatu in Toga Can

dida. " Top. . Topica. " Tull., Oratio pro M. Tullio. " Tusc, Tusculanae Disputationea " Dniv., De Universo, or Timaeus. il Vatin., Oratio in Vatinium. " Verr. , Actio in Verrem.

flor.

" 54

AD 50

" 238

" 375

ob. B.C. 43

Cinc. L Cincius Alimentus, annalist

etc, Cinn. C. Helvius Ciona, Epic. poet,

Claud. Claudius Claudianus.poe*,

" B. Get. or Bell. Get., De Bello Getico.

" B. Gild. or Bell. Gild., De Bello Gildonico.

" Cons. Mall. Theod., De Consulatu FL Mallii Theodori.

" Cons. Olyb. et Prob., In Consulatum Olybrii et Probini.

" Cons. Stil., De Consulatu Stilichonis.

" IV. Cons. Hon. , De Quarto Consulatu Honorii.

" VI. Cons. Hoa, De Sexto Consulatu Honorii.

" Epith., Epithalamium.

" in Eutr., in Eutropium Libri II.

" in Rufln., in Rufinium Libri II.

" Laud. Ser., De Laudibus Serenae Reginae.

" Laud. Stil., De Laudibus Stilichonis.

" Nupt. Hon. et Mar., De Nuptiis Honorii et Mariae.

" Rapt. Pros. , De Raptu Proserpinae.

Claud. Mam. Claudianus Ecdicius Mamertus,

Chr. writer, " Stat. An., De Statu Animae.

Cloat. Cloatius Verus, grammarian,

Cod. Codex,

" Greg., Gregorianus. compiled

" Hermog. , Hermogenianus. "

" Just. or Cod., Justinianeus. "

" Theod. , Theodosianus. "

CoL L. Junius Moderatus Columella,

writer on husbandry,

Commod. Commodianus, Chr. poet,

" ApoL, Carmen Apologeticum. " Instr., Instructiones.

Consent P. Consentius, grammarian,

Coripp. Fl. Cresconius Corippus,poet and

grammarian, " Johan. , Johannis, sive de Bellis Libycis. " Laud. Just., De Laudibus Justini AugustL

Corn. Gall. Cn. Cornelius Gallus, poet,

Corn. Sev. Cornelius Severus, poet,

Cornif. Cornificus, rhetorician (acc to

Quintilian, the name of the writer of the four books of Rnetorica ad C. Herennium ; usu. cited as Auct. Her.),

Curt. Q. Curtius Rufus, historian,

Cypr. Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus,

Chr. writer,

Dict. Cret Interpres Dictyos Cretensis,

about Dig. Digesta, i. e. Libri Pandectarum.

Diom. Diomedes, grammarian,

Dion. Cato, The name inscribed on a collec-

tion of distichs de rnoribus, etc, probably of the third or fourth century.

Donat. or Doa Aelius Donatus, commentalor,

Dracont. Dracontius, poet,

" Hexaem., Hexaemeron Creationis Mundi.

EccL Scriptores Ecclesiastici.

Enn. Q. Ennius, poet,

" Ann., Annales. " Trag. , Tragoediae.

Ennod. Ennodius, Chr. poet and liogra-

pher, " Ep. Epistulae. " EpithaL, Epithalamium. " Pan.. Panegyricus. " Vit. Epiph., Vita Epiphanii.

Eum. Eumenius, orator ar.d panegyr-

ist, " Grat. Act, Gratiarum Actio Constantino. " Pan. Const., Panegyricus Constantino Augu- sto dictus.

Flavius Eutropius, historian, Fabius Pictor, historian, See Gratius Faliscus. Favorinus, philosopher, L. Fenestella, historian, Sext. Pompeius Festus, grc.mma

rian. (Julius Firmicus Maternus, math- \ ematician,

L. Annaeus Florus, historian, ( Venantius Fortunatus, Christian ( poet.

flor. B.C.210 " " 40 " A.D.40J

Eutr.

Fab. Pict.

Falisc

Favorin.

Fenest

Fest.

Firm. Mat. or) Firm. )

Flor.

Fortun. or Ven. Fort.

47C

"(?)

" 100

(?) (?)

" 295 " 330 " 530 " 438

fl.

" 50

t(

" 245

((

" 475

(C

" 565

ob.

B.C. 25

((

" 28

fl.(r) " 80 " A.D. 50

ob. " 257

" 380

fl. (?) " 375

" " 350

" " 490

ob. B.C.169

" A.D.521

fl.

300

((

" 375

((

B.C.214

II

A.D.130

II

" 36

.)

about (?) " 150

" " 340

" " 140

" 600

ABBREVIATIONS.

Front or Frontin. S. Jullus Frontinus,e«fln'n«er,etc, obiit, A.D. 108 " Aquaed., De Aquaeductibus Urbis Romae. " Strat., Strategematica, Fronto or Front M. Cornelius Fronto, orator, " " 168

" ad Marc, Epistulae ad M. Aurelium. " ad Ver., Epistulae ad Verum Imperatorem. " De Diff, De Differentiis. " De Eloq., De Eloquentia. Fulg. Fabius Planciades Fulgcntius,

grammarian, etc, " " 650

" De Aetat., De Aetatibus Mundi. " Expos., Expositio Sermonum Antiquorum. " Myth., Mythologiae. " Verg. Cont., Vergiliana Continentia.

Gai. Gaius, JCtus, " " 180

" Inst., Institutiones Juris Civilis.

Gell. Aulus Gellius, gramm., etc, " " 175

German. Caesar Germanicus, poet, " " 18

Gloss. Glossarium.

" CyriL, Cyrilli. " Isid., Isidori. " Philox., Philoxeni.

Grat. Gratius Faliscus, poet, flor. " 10

" Cyn. or Cyneg., Cynegetica. Her. See Auctor ad Herennium.

Hier. Hieronymus, Chr. writer, ob. " 420

" Cant. Cantic, Homiliae in Cantica Canticorum.

" Cont. Pelag., Dialogi Contra Pelagianos.

" Ep., Epistulae.

" in Isa,, in Iesaiam Commentarii.

" in Psa., in Psalmos Tractatus.

Hirt. Aulus Hirtius, historian (= Auct

B. G. 8, in continuation of Cae- Bar'scommentaries; andAuct. B. Alex.), " B.C. 44

Hor. Q. Horatius Flaccus, poet, " " 8

" A. P., Ars Poetica.

" C, Carmina, or Odae.

" C. S., Carmen Seculare.

" Ep., Epistulae.

" Epod., Epodi.

" Od., Odae, or Carmina,

" S. or Sat.,Satirae.

Hyg. C. Julius Hyginus, poet andfab-

ulist, fl. " 10

" Astr., Astronomia.

" F., Fabellae. Hyg. (Gromat.), Hyginus, writer on surveying, " A.D. 100

" Lim. or De Lim., De Limitibus Constituendis.

Inscr. Inscriptiones.

" Don., Donii.

" Fabr., Fabretti.

" Graev. . Graevii.

" Grut., Gruteri.

" Gud., Gudii.

" Maff, Maffeii.

" Momms., Mommsenil.

" Murat., Muratorii.

" Neap. , Regni Neapolitani (ed. by Mommsen).

" Orell. , Orelli.

" Rein. , Reinesii.

Inst. Institutiones.

Isid. Isidorus Hispalensis, gramm., ob. " 640

" Orig., Ongenes.

Javol. Javolenus Priscus, JCtus, fl. " 100

Jornand. Jornandes or Jordanis, historian, " " 552

JuL Val. Julius Valerius, historian, " " 290

" " Res Gest. Alex., Res Gestae Alexandri Ma- cedonis.

Julian. Salvius Julianus, JCtus, " " 130

Just. Justinus, historian, about " (?) " 150

Just Justinianus, emperor, ob. " 565 " Inst, Institutiones.

Juv. D. Junius Juvenalis, poet, " " 130

Juvenc C. Vettius Aquilinus Juvencus,

Chr.poet, fl. " 325

Laber. C.DeciusLaberius,»ii'mo0rap7ier, " B.C. 60

Lact L. Caelius Lactantius Firmianus,

Chr.wriler, ob. A.D. 325

" De Ira D., De Irli Dei.

" Epit. , Epitome Divinarum Institutionum.

" Inst. (nr Lact. alone), Institutiones Divinae.

" Mort. Pers , De Mortibus Persecutorum.

Laev. Laevius, lyrie poet, fl. (?) B.C. 100

Lampr. Aelius Lampridius, historian, ob. " 300

" Alex. Pcv., Alexandri Severi Vita.

" Com., Commodi Vita.

" Elag., Elapabali Vita. Leg. XII. Tab. Leges duodecim Tabularum, compiled " 450

IX

obilt, A.D. 17

B.C.204 A.D. 65 B.C. 103

Liv. Titus Livlus, historian,

Liv. Andron. Livius Andronicus, writer of

tragedy,

Luc M. Annaeus Lucanus, poet,

Lucil. C. Ennius Lucilius, satirist,

" Aetn., Aetna, v. Auctor Aetnae.

Lucr. T. Lucretius Carus, poet andphi-

losopher, " " 65

Macr. Aurelius Theodosius Macrobius,

critic, flor. A.D.400

" S. or Sat, Saturnalia.

" Somn. Scip., Somnium Scipionis.

Mamert Claud. Mamertinus, panegyrist, " " 362

Manil. M. Manilius,poe«, " " 12

" Astron, Astronomica.

Marc Emp. Marcellus Empiricus, physician, " " 400

Mart M. Valerius Martialis, #oe<, ob. " 102

Mart Cap. Martianus Minneus Felix Capel-

la, satirist, fl. (?) " 425

Maxim. Maximianus, poet, " " 520

Mel. or Mela, Pomponius Mela, geographer, " " 45

Min. Fel. Minucius Felix, Chr. writer, " " 200

" 0ct,0ctaviua

Modest Herennius Modestinus, JCtus., " " 240

Monum. Ancyr. Monumentum Ancyranum, an inscription placed on the wall of the pronaos at Ancyra, by Augustus Csesar, " " 14

Naev. C. Naevius, poet, ob. B.C.198

Nazar. Nazarius, panegyrist, fl. A. D. 320

" Pan. Const, Panegyricus Constantini.

Nemes. M. Aur. Olympius Nemesianus,

poet, " "260

" Cyn. , Cynegetica. " Ecl. , Eclogae. Nep. Cornelius Nepos, biographer, " B.C. 44

" Ages., Agesilaus.

" Alcib. , Alcibiades.

" Arist, Aristides.

" Att,Atticus.

" Cat. , M. Porcius Cato.

" Chabr., Chabrias.

" Cim., Cimon.

" Con. , Conon.

" Dat, Datames.

" Dion, Dion.

" Epam., Epaminondas.

" Eum., Eumenes.

" Ham., Hamilcar.

" Hann. , HannibaL

" Iph., Iphicrates.

" Lys. , Lysander.

" Milt, Miltiades.

" Paus., Pausanias.

" Pelop., Pelopidas.

" Phoc, Phocion.

" Reg., De Regibus.

" Them., Themistocles.

" Thras., Thrasybulus.

" Tim. orTimoI.,Timoleon.

" Timoth., Timotheus.

P. Nigidius Figulus, gramm., " " 60

Nonius Marcellus, gramm., " (?) AD. 280

Notae Tironianae, a late collec-

tion of abbreviations ascribed

to Cicero's freedman Tiro.

Novius, writer ofcomedy, " B.C. 90

Novatianus, Chr. writer, " A.D. 250 Julius Obsequens, writer De Pro-

digiis, " (?) " 375

Publilius Optatianus Porphyrius, panegyrist, " " 330

See Inscriptiones.

Paulus Orosius, historian, " " 410

P. Ovidius Naso, poet, ob. " 17

" A. A., Ars Amatoria.

" Am., Aniores.

" Cons. . Consolatio.

" F. or Fast., Fasti.

" H. or Her., Heroides.

" HaL, Halieuticon.

" Ib., Ibis.

" M. or Met, Metamorphoses.

" Med. Fac., Medicamina Faciei.

" Nux, Nux Elcgia.

" P. or Pont . Epistulae ex Ponto.

" R. Am. or Rem. Am., Remedia Amoris.

" Tr. or Trist , Tristia.

Pac. or Pacuv. M. Pacuvius, writer oftragedy, " B.C. 132

Nigid. Non. Not Tir.

Nov.

Novat or Nov,

Obseq.

OpUt

Orell. Oros. Ov.

ABBREVIATIONS.

Pacat. LatinuB Pacatus Drepanlus, pan-

egyrist,

" Pan., Panegyricus. Pall. Palladius Rutilius Taurus, writer

on husbandry,

" Apr., Aprilis Mensis, or Liber V.

" Aug., Augustus Mensis, or Liber IX.

" Dec, December Mensis, or Liber XIII.

" Febr., Februarius Mensis, or Liber III.

" Jan. , Januarius Mensis, or Liber II.

" Jul. , Julius Mensis, or Liber VIII.

" Jun., Junius Mensis, or Liber VII.

" Mai., Maius Mensis, or Liber VI.

" Mart., Martius Mensis, or Liber IV.

" Nov., November Mensis, or Liber XII.

" Oct. , October Mensis, or Liber XI. .

" Sept., September Mensis, or Liber X.

flor. A.D.

"(?) "

389

350

Papin. Aemilius Papinius, JCtus,

K tt

200

Paul. Julius Paulus, JCtus,

tt tc

200

Paul. NoL Pontius Paulinus Nolanus, Chr. writer,

" Carm., Carmina.

" Ep., Epistulae. Paul. Petr. Paulinus Petricordiensis, poet,

obiit, " fl.

431

470

Pers. A. Persius Flaccus, satirist,

ob. "

62

Petr. Petronius Arbiter, satirist, " S. orSat., Satirae.

fl. (?) "

CO

Phaedr. T. Thaedrus, fabulist, Pict. See Fab. Pict.

tt tt

40

Placid. Luctatius (or Lactantius) Placl-

dus, scholiast,

Plaut. T. Maccius Plautus, writer of

comedy,

" Am. or Amph., Amphitruo.

" As. or Asin., Asinaria.

" Aul. , Aulularia.

" Bacch., Bacchides.

" Capt., Captivi.

" Cas., Casina.

" Cist., Cistellaria.

" Curc, Curculio.

" Ep. or EpicL.Epidicus.

" Men., Menaechml.

" Merc, Mercator.

" Mil., Miles Gloriosus.

" Most., Mostellaria.

" Pers.,Persa.

" Poen., Poenulas.

" Ps., Pseudolus.

" Rud., Rudens.

" Stich., Stichus.

" Trin., Trinummus.

" Truc, Truculentus.

Plin. C. Plinius Secundus (major),

" H. N., Historia Naturalis (usu. undesignated).

Plin. C. Plinius Caecilius Secundus

(minor), " Ep., Epistulae. " Pan. , Panegyricus.

Plin. Val.

"(?) " ob. B.C.

450 184

" A.D. 79

113

Plinius Valerianus, physic. (the last book is a later addition), L. Pomponius, writer ofcomedy, Sextus Pomponius, JCtus, M. Porcius Latro, rhetorician, Priapea, a collection of satiric and erotic poems and frag- ments appended to L. Muller's Catullus. Priscianus, grammarian, Sex. Aurelius Propertius, poet,

Aurel. Prudentius Clemens, Chr. poet,

" Cath. , Cathemerina. " c. Symm., contra Symmachum. " Psych., Psychomachia.

" <TT€<p., irepi %Te<puvo)v. Pub. Syr. Publilius Syrus, mimographer,

Q. Cic Quintus Tullius Cicero,

" Pet. Cons., De Petitione Consulatus.

Quint. M. T. Quintilianus, rhetorician,

" Decl., Declamationes. " Inst. (or Quint. alone), InstitutionesOratoriae.

Pomp. Pompon. Porc. Latro, Prlap.

Prisc. Prop. Prud.

"(?) " fl. B.C. ob. A. D. " B.C.

400

90

138

3

fl. ob.

500 16

fl. A.D.400

B.C.

ob.

A.D. 95

Rhem. Fan.

tt Rut:

Kufin.

Rutil. Lup.

Rutil or Rutil. Nam.

Fond

Rhemmius Fanninus or Remius

Favinus, poet, , De Pouderibus et Mensuris. Sextus Rufus, hislorian, Tyrannius Rufinus, Chr. writer, P. Rutilius Lupus, grammarian,

(Claudius Rutilius Namatianus,

\ poet,

fl. (?) " 400

tt ii

ob. "

fl. (?) "

350

410

50

416

flor. A.D.440

" B.C. 95

" A.D. 50

" 470 " " 15

Sall. C. Sallustius Crispus, historian, obiit, B.C. 35

" C. or Cat., Catilina. " Fragm., Fragmenta. " H. or Hist., Historia. " J. or Jug., Jugurtha.

Salv. Salvianus, Chr. writer,

" Avar. , Adversum Avaritiam.

" Ep., Epistulae.

" Gub. Dei, De Gubernatione Dei.

Scaev. Q. Mutius Scaevola, JCtus,

Scrib. Scribonius Largus, physxcian,

" Comp., Compositiones Medicamentorum. Sedul. Caelius Sedulius, Chr.poet,

Sen. M. Annaeus Seneca, rhetorician,

" Contr. , Controversiae. " Suas. , Suasoriae.

Sen. L. Annaeus Seneca, philosopner

and tragediaii, ob. " 65

1. Prose writings.

" Apocol., Apocolocyntosis.

" Ben., De Beneficiis.

" Brev. Vit., De Brevitate Vitae.

" Clem., De Clementia.

" Cons. Helv., ad Helviam Matrem De Consola-

tione. " Cons. Marc, ad Marciam De Consolatione. " Cons. Polyb., ad Polybium De Consolatione. " Const. or Const. Sap., De Constantiu Sapientis. " Ep., Epistulae. " Mort. Claud. or Lud. Mort., De Morte Claudii

Caesaris. " Ot. Sap., De Otio Sapientis. " Prov., De Providentia. " Q. N. , Quaestiones Naturales. " Tranq., De Tranquillitate Animi. " Vit. Beat., De Vita Beata.

2. Tragedies.

" Agam, Agamemnon.

" Herc. Fur., Hercules Furens.

" Herc Oet., Hercules Oetaeus.

" HippoL, Hippolytus, or Phaedra.

" Med., Medea.

" Octav., Octavia.

" Oedip., Oedipus.

" Phaedr., v. HippoL

" Phoen., Phoenissae.

" Thyest. , Thyestes.

" Troad.,Troades.

Ser. Samm. Q. Serenus Sammonicus,p^y«'c,

Serv. Servius Honoratus, gramm.,

Sev. See Corn. Sev.

Sid. Apollinaris Sidonius, Chrislian

writer,

" Carm. , Carmina.

" Ep., Epistulae.

Sil. C. Silius Italicus, poet,

Sisenn. L. Cornelius Sisenna, historian

and orator,

SoL or Solin. C. Julius Solinus, grammarian,

Spart. Aelius Spartianus, biographer,

Stat. P. Papinius Statius,^oe<,

" Ach. or Ach i 1. , Achilleis.

" S. or Silv.,Silvae.

" Th. or Theb.,Thebais.

Suet. C. Suetonius Tranquillus, biog-

rapher, " Aug., Octavius Augustus Caesar. " Caes., Julius Caesar. " Calig., Caius Caligula. " Claud.,Claudius. " Dom., Domitianus. " Galb.,GaIba. " Gram.,De Grammaticis. " Ner.,Nero. " Oth.,Otho. " Rhet., De Rhetoricis. " Tib.,Tiberius. " Tit.,Titus. " Vesp., Vespasianus. " Vit., Vitellius. Sulp. Sulpicius Severus, Chr. wriler,

Symm. Q. Aurelius Symmachus, orator,

etc, Tac C. Cornelius Tacitus, historian,

" Agr, Agricola. " A. or Ann., Annales. " DiaL, Dialogus de Oratoribus. " G. or Germ, Germania. " H. or Hist, Historia. " Or., Dialogus de Oratoribus.

Ter. or T. P. Terentius Afer, writer ofcom-

edy, " B.C. 159

" Ad..Adelphi

"(?) " 230 fl. " 390

ob.

488