o'iio

The

Collected Works

of

Edward Sapir

III

w

DE

G

The (\illccted Works o( Edward Sapir Editorial Board

Philip Sapir Editor-in-Chief

William Bright

Regna Darnell

Victor Golla

Eric P. Hamp

Richard Handler

Judith T. Irvine

Pierre Swiggers

The

Collected Works

of

Edward Sapir

III

Culture

Volume Editors Sections I and III

Regna Darnell Judith T. Irvine

Section II

Judith T. Irvine

Section IV and V

Richard Handler

1999

Mouton de Gruyter

Berlin New York

The C\>Ikvicd Works oi' Edward Sapir

I cliioiial Hoard

Philip Sapir

fic/ifor-in-C/iicf

William Bright

Rcgna Darnell Victor Golla

Eric P. Hamp

Richard Handler

Judith T. Irvine

Pierre Swiggers

The

Collected Works

of

Edward Sapir

III

Culture

Volume Editors Sections I and III

Regna Darnell Judith T. Irvine

Section II

Judith T. Irvine

Section IV and V

Richard Handler

1999

Mouton de Gruyter

Berlin New York

M

rmcrlv Vlouton, Ihc Hague)

Jc Cir'uvicr timbH & Co. KG. Berlin.

, Pnn,cd on acd-lrcc paper . h.ch falls w.thm the guidelines of the ANSI to ensure permanence dnd durjbihtN

lihrarv of Congress Cataloging-m-Puhlication-Data

Sapir. Edward. 1884-1939

Culture / \olume editors. Regna Darnell ... [et al.].

p cm. - (The collected works of Edward Sapir ; 3)

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 3-11-012639-7 (alk. paper)

I Culture. 2. Cognition and cuhure. 3. Ethnopsychology. I Darnell. Regna. II. Title. III. Series: Sapir, Edward, 18*4- 1939. Works. 1990 ; 3. GN357.S27 1999

30ft dc:i 98-33370

CIP

Drulsche Bihliothek - Cataloging in Puhlication Data

Sapir, FUlward:

(The collected works]

The collected works of Edward Sapir / ed. board Philip Sapir

ed -m-chief . - Berlin ; New York : Mouton de Gruyter

ISBN 3-II-0I0I04-1 (Berlin)

ISBN 0-89925-138-2 (New York)

3. Culture / vol. ed. Regna Darnell ; Judith T. Irvine - 1999 ISBN 3-1 1 -01 2639-7

© Copyright 1999 by Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, D- 1 0785 Berlin. All rights reserved, including those of translation into foreign languages. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, includ- mg photcKopy recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writmg from the publisher.

Disk conversion and printing: Arthur Collignon GmbH, Berlin. - Binding: Liideritz & Bauer, Berlin. Printed in Germany.

Edward Sapir, about 1928, Chicago, Illinois

(Courtesy of Sapir family)

Edward Sapir (1884-1939) has been referred to as "one of the most brilliant scholars in linguistics and anthropology in our coun- try" (Franz Boas) and as "one of the greatest figures in American humanistic scholarship" (Franklin Edgerton). His classic book. Lan- guage (1921), is still in use, and many of his papers in general linguis- tics, such as "Sound Patterns in Language" and "The Psychological Reality of Phonemes," stand also as classics. The development of the American descriptive school of structural linguistics, including the adoption of phonemic principles in the study of non-literary lan- guages, was primarily due to him.

The large body of work he carried out on Native American lan- guages has been called "ground-breaking" and "monumental" and includes descriptive, historical, and comparative studies. They are of continuing importance and relevance to today's scholars.

Not to be ignored are his studies in Indo-European, Semitic, and African languages, which have been characterized as "masterpieces of brilliant association" (Zellig Harris). Further, he is recognized as a forefather of ethnolinguistic and sociolinguistic studies.

In anthropology Sapir contributed the classic statement on the the- ory and methodology of the American school of Franz Boas in his monograph, "Time Perspective in Aboriginal American Culture" (1916). His major contribution, however, was as a pioneer and pro- ponent for studies on the interrelation of culture and personality, of society and the individual, providing the theoretical basis for what is known today as symbolic anthropology.

He was, in addition, a poet, and contributed papers on aesthetics, literature, music, and social criticism.

Note to the Reader

ThrouglKHii Ihc Collected Works of Edward Sapir, those publications whose typographic complexity would have made new typesetting and proofreading ditVicult have been photographically reproduced. All other material has been newly typeset. When possible, the editors have worked from Sapir's personal copies of his published work, incorporat- ing his corrections and additions into the reset text. Such emendations are acknowledged in the endnotes. Where the editors themselves have corrected an obvious typographical error, this is noted by brackets around the corrected form.

The page numbers of the original publication are retained in the photographically reproduced material; in reset material, the original publication's pagination appears as bracketed numbers within the text at the point where the original page break occurred. To avoid confusion and to conform to the existing literature, the page numbers cited in introductions and editorial notes are those of the original publications.

Footnotes which appeared in the original publications appear here as footnotes. Editorial notes appear as endnotes. Endnote numbers are placed in the margins of photographically reproduced material; in reset material they are inserted in the text as superscript numbers in brackets. The Tirst, unnumbered endnote for each work contains the citation of the original publication and, where appropriate, an acknowledgment of permission to reprint the work here.

All citations of Sapir's works in the editorial matter throughout these volumes conform to the master bibliography that appears in Volume XVI; since not all works will be cited in any given volume, the letters following the dates are discontinuous within a single volume's refer- ences. In volumes where unpublished materials by Sapir have been cited, a list of the items cited and the archives holding them is appended to the References.

Contents

Frontispiece: Edward Sapir, about 1928 6

Preface 15

Section One: Culture, Society, and the Individual REGNA DARNELL AND JUDITH T. IRVINE, EDITORS

Introduction 19

Do We Need a "Superorganic"? (1917) 27

Culture, Genuine and Spurious (1924) 43

Notes on Psychological Orientation in a Given Society (1926):

Hanover Conference Presentation and excerpts of discussion 73

Anthropology and Sociology (1927) 99

Speech as a Personality Trait (1927) 119

The Meaning of Religion (1928) 133

Proceedings, First Colloquium on Personality, American Psychi- atric Association (1928) 147

The Unconscious Patterning of Behavior in Society (1928) .... 155 Proceedings, Second Colloquium on Personality, American Ps\-

chiatric Association (1930) 173

The Cultural Approach to the Study of Personality ( 1930):

Hanover Conference presentation and excerpts of discussion 1 99 Original Memorandum to the Social Science Research C ouiicil 243 A Project for the Study of Acculturation among the American Indians, with Special Reference to the Investigation o( Prob- lems of Personality 246

The Proposed Work of the Committee on Pcrsonalii> and

Culture 249

Custom (1931) 255

Fashion (1931) 265

Cultural Anthropology and Psychiatry (1932) 277

10 /// Culture

Group (1^)32) 93

The Emergence o\^ the Concept of PersonaHty in a Study of

CuUures (1^)34) 33

PersonaHty (1934) ^3

SymboHsm (1934) 39

txtracis from the Proceedings of the Conference on PersonaHty

and Cuhure (1935) 27

Siimmar> of proceedings and excerpts of discussion, 1935 ... 38

Extracts from the minutes, 1936 and 1938 meetings of the

Committee on Personality in Relation to Culture 32

Tlie .\ppHcation of Anthropology to Human Relations (1936) . . 35

The Contribution of Psychiatry to an Understanding of Behavior

m Society (1937) 33

Why CuUural Anthropology Needs the Psychiatrist (1938) .... 33

Letter to Philip S. Selznick, 25 October 1938 (1980) 36

Psychiatric and Cultural Pitfalls in the Business of Getting a

Living (1939) 36

References, Section One 38

Section Two: The Psychology of Culture JUDITH T IRVINE, EDITOR

Acknowledgements 3g

Intrt)duclion 3g

Outline for The Psyelwlugy of Culture (1928) 41

Tlie Psychology of Culture (1927-37) 42

References, Section Two 57c

Section Threi;: Assessments of Psychology and Psychiatry REGNA DARNELL AND JUDITH T. IRVINE, EDITORS

Introduction .... ^o-v 00 /

A Freudian Half-Holiday: Review of Sigmund Freud, Delusion

ami Dream (1917) . . .^c

695

Contents 1 1

Psychoaalysis as Pathfinder: Review of Oskar Pfister, The Psy- choanlytic Method (1917) 699

A Touci5tone to Freud: Review of William H. R. Rivers, Instinct and th' Unconscious (1921) 704

Practice Psychology: Review of Frederick Pierce, Our Uncon- sciou Mind and How to Use It (1922) 708

An Ortodox Psychology: Review of Robert S. Woodworth, Psycniogy (1922) 711

Two Kids of Human Beings: Review of Carl G. Jung, Psycho- logia Types (1923) 714

Reviewof George A. Dorsey, Wiry We Behave Like Human Be- ings i 926) 719

Revievof Knight Dunlap, Old and New Viewpoints in Psychology (192() 720

Speechmd Verbal Thought in Childhood: Review of Jean Piaget, The Mnguage and Thought of the Child (1927) 722

Psychonalysis as Prophet: Review of Sigmund Freud, The Future of a. Illusion (1928 725

Refereces, Section Three 727

r*:

Sectk. Four: Reflections on Contemporary Civilization RICK.RD HANDLER, EDITOR

Introcction to Sections Four and Five: Edward Sapir's Aesthetic ancCultural Criticism 731

Cultu3 in the MeUing Pot (1916) 749

Revie' of Paul Abelson, English- Yiddish Encyclopedic Dictionary (195) 753

God s Visible Personality: Review of Samuel Butler, God the Kmvn and God the Unknown (1918) 756

The hds of Man: Review of J. M. Tyler, The New Stone Age in Noihern Europe; Stewart Paton, Human Behavior: and E. G. Coklin, The Direction of Human Evolution (1921) 760

10 /// Oil lure

Group (1932) 293

The l-mcrgcncc o\~ the Concept o( Personality in a Study of

Cultures"! 1934) 303

Personality (1934) 313

S>mbolism (1934) 319

Extracts from the Proceedings of the Conference on Personality

and Culture (1935) . . . . ^ 327

Suniniar\ o\' proceedings and excerpts of discussion, 1935 . . . 328

Extracts from the minutes, 1936 and 1938 meetings of the C\^mmitlee on Personality in Relation to Culture 332

The Application of Anthropology to Human Relations (1936) . . 335

The Contribution of Psychiatry to an Understanding of Behavior in Society (1937) 343

\Mi> Cultural Anthropology Needs the Psychiatrist (1938) .... 353

Letter to Philip S. Selznick, 25 October 1938 (1980) 363

Psychiatric and Cultural Pitfalls in the Business of Getting a Living (1939) 367

References. Section One 381

Shction Two: The Psychology of Culture JUDITH I IRVINE, EDITOR

Acknowledgements 387

Introduction 3g9

Outlme for I'/w Psychology of Culture {\92^) 413

The Psychology of Culture (1927-37) 421

References, Section Two 579

Section Thru;: Assessments of Psychology and Psychiatry REGNA DARNELL AND JUDITH T IRVINE, EDITORS

Introduction /-^^

A Freudian Half-Holiday: Review of Sigmund Freud, Delusion

ami Dream (1917) ^qc

Contents 11

Psychoanalysis as PathUndcr: Review of Oskar Pfister. The Psy- choanalytic Method (\9\1) 699

A Touchstone to Freud: Review of William \\. R. Rivers. Instinct

and the Unconscious (1921) 704

Practical Psychology: Review of Frederick Pierce, Our Lucon- scious Mind and How to Use It {\922) 708

An Orthodox Psychology: Review of Robert S. Woodworth. Psychology (1922) 711

Two Kinds of Human Beings: Review of Carl G. Jung, Psycho- logical Types {\92?>) 714

Review of George A. Dorsey, Why We Behave Like Human Be- ings {\926) 719

Review of Knight Dunlap, Old and New Viewpoints In Psychology (1926) '.....'. 720

Speech and Verbal Thought in Childhood: Review of Jean Piaget. The Language and Thought of the Child {\921) 722

Psychoanalysis as Prophet: Review of Sigmund Freud, The Future of an Illusion (1928 725

References, Section Three 727

Section Four: Reflections on Contemporary Civilization RICHARD HANDLER, EDITOR

Introduction to Sections Four and Five: Edward Sapir's Aesthetic and Cultural Criticism 731

Culture in the Melting Pot (1916) 749

Review of Paul Abelson, English-Yiddish Encyclopedic Dictionary (1916) 753

God as Visible Personality: Review of Samuel Butler, (iiul the

Known and God the Unknowtt (1918) 756

The Ends of Man: Review of J. M. Tyler, The \cw Stone Age in Northern Europe; Stewart Paton, Human Behavior: and E. G. Conklin. Hw Direction of Ilunuin Evolution (1921) 760

12 /// Culture

Review of Gilbert Murray, Tnulitkm and Progress (1922) 766

The Epos o'( Man: Rc\ lew of Johannes V. Jensen, The Long Jour- ney {\')2}) '76'7

Racial Superiority (1^)24) 770

Arc the Nordics a Superior Race? (1925) 784

Let Race Alone (1^)25) 787

L ndesirables Klanned or Banned (1925) 794

The Race Problem: Review of F. G. Crookshank, The Mongol in Our Midsi: H. W. Siemens, Raee Hygiene and Heredity; Jean I-inot, Race Prejudice; and J. H. Oldham, Christianity and the Race Problem {\925) 799

Is Monotheism Jewish? Review of Paul Radin, Monotheism among Primiti\e Peoples (1925) 804

Review o^ Ludwig Lewisohn, Israel (1926) 810

A Reasonable Eugenist: Review of F. H. Hankins, The Racial Basis of Civilization (1927) 816

Observations on the Sex Problem in America (1928; also pub- lished as The Discipline of Sex, 1929, 1930) 818

Review of Waldo Frank, The Rediscovery of America (1929) . . . 833

What is the Family Still Good For? (1929; also pubhshed 1930) 835

Franz Boas: Review of Franz Boas, Anthropology and Modern Life (\929) 845

The Skepticism of Bertrand Russell: Review of Bertrand Russell,

Sceptical Essays (1929) 847

Two Philosophers on What Matters: Review of F. C. S. Schiller, Tantalus, or the Future of Man, and Bertrand Russell, How to Be Free and Happy (n.d., circa 1929) 850

Review of M. E. DeWitt, Our Oral Word as Social and Economic

Factor (1929) 353

Our Business Civilization: Review of James Truslow Adams, Our Business Civilization (1930) 855

Review of Thurman W. Arnold, The FoMore of Capitalism (1938) 858

Appendix: John Dewey, "American Education and Culture" ^'916) 863

Contents 1 3

Section Five: Aesthetics RICHARD HANDLER, EDITOR

Percy Grainger and Primitive Music (1916) 867

Literary Realism (1917) 876

Realism in Prose Fiction (1917) 880

The Twilight of Rhyme (1917) 886

"Jean-Christophe": An Epic of Humanity: Review of Romain

Rolland, Jean-Christophe (1917) 891

A Frigid Introduction to Strauss: Review of Henry T. Finck,

Richard Strauss, the Man and His Works (1917) 898

Representative Music (1918) 902

Sancho Panza on His Island: Review of G. K. Chesterton, Uto- pias of Usurers and Other Essays (1918) 909

A Note on French Canadian Folk-Songs (1919) 913

The Poet Seer of Bengal: Review of Rabindranath Tagore, Lover's

Gift, Crossing, Mashi and Other Stories (1919) 915

Review of Cary F. Jacob, The Foundations and Nature of Verse

(1919) 920

The Heuristic Value of Rhyme (1920) 922

The Poetry Prize Contest (1920) 926

The Musical Foundations of Verse (1921) 930

Maupassant and Anatole France (1921) 945

Gerard Hopkins: Review of Robert Bridges, ed.. Poems of Gerard

Manley Hopkins (1921) 950

Writing as History and as Style: Review of W. A. Mason, History

of the Art of Writing (1921) 955

Poems of Experience: Review of Edward Arlington Robinson,

Collected Poems (1922) 958

Maxwell Bodenheim: Review of Maxwell Bodenheim, Introducing

Irony (1922) 962

Introducing Irony: Review of Maxwell Bodenheim, I/itroducing

Irony {1922) 964

The Manner of Mr. Masefield: Review of John Masefield. King

Cole {\922) 967

Review of John Masefield, Esther and Berenice (1922) 970

14 /// Culture

Mr. Masters' Later Work: Review of Edgar Lee Masters, The

Open Sea ( 1 922; also published as Spoon River Muddles, 1 922) 97 1 Review of Edgar Lee Masters, Children of the Market Place

(1922) 974

A Peep at the Hindu Spirit: Review of Ellen C. Babbitt, More

Junika Tales (1922) 976

Heavens: Review of Louis Untermeyer, Heavens (1922) 978

Review of Edward Thomas, Collected Poems (1922) 980

Review of Arthur Davison Ficke, Mr. Faust (1922) 981

Review of George Saintsbury, A Letter Book (1922) 982

Review of Selma Lagerlof, The Outcast (1922) 983

Review of Edwin Bjorkman, The Soul of a Child (\923) 984

Mr. Houseman's Last Poems: Review of A. E. Houseman, Last

Poems (\92}) 987

Twelve Novelists in Search of a Reason: Review of The Novel of Tomorrow and the Scope of Fiction, by Twelve American Novel- ists (1924) 991

.An American Poet: Review of H. D., Collected Poems (1925) . . 998 Emily Dickinson, a Primitive: Review of Emily Dickinson, The Complete Poems of Emily Dickinson, and M. D. Bianchi, The

Life and Letters of Emily Dickinson (1925) 1001

The Tragic Chuckle: Review of Edward Arlington Robinson, Di- onysus in Doubt (1925) 1007

Preface and Introduction to Marius Barbeau and Edward Sapir,

Folk Songs of French Canada (1925) 1009

Review of Harold Vinal, Nor Youth nor Age (n.d., circa 1925) . . 1018

Review of Mabel Simpson, Poems (n.d., circa 1925) 1020

Leonie Adams: Review of Leonie Adams, Those Not Elect (1926) 1023 Review of James Weldon Johnson, ed.. The Book of American Negro Spirituals (1928) 1026

When Words are Not Enough: Review of Clarence Day, Thoughts

without Words (1928) IO30

Review of Knut Hamsun, The Women at the Pump (1928) .... 1032

References, Sections Four and Five 1033

* * * Index

1037

Preface

Volume III of The Collected Works of Edward Scipir is divided into five Sections. Section I, "Culture, Society, and the Individual," edited by Regna Darnell and Judith T. Irvine, contains Sapir's essays on theo- retical and conceptual topics in cultural anthropology, psychology, and other social sciences. Most of these essays were published between 1917, the date of the beginning of the debate with Alfred Kroeber on the "superorganic," and Sapir's death in 1939. We are particularly pleased, however, to be able to include two major papers not previously pub- lished: Sapir's presentations at the 1926 and 1930 Hanover Conferences sponsored by the Social Science Research Council. Digests of the con- ference discussions, as well as other supporting materials Sapir offered at these meetings, are included together with his conference pre- sentations.

Section Two, "The Psychology of Culture," prepared by Judith T. Ir- vine, is an edited version of a book Sapir contracted to write but did not live to put on paper. The manuscript, a shorter edition of which was published by Mouton de Gruyter in 1993, was reconstructed along lines indicated, in part, by Sapir's prospectus sent to Alfred Harcourt in 1928 (q.v.), and correspondence relating to the book. The principal materials for the reconstruction, however, were student notes on the lectures Sapir intended to be the basis for his written text.

Section Three, "Assessments of Psychology and Psychiatry," edited by Regna Darnell and Judith T. Irvine, contains reviews of books in psychology and psychiatry. Sapir published these reviews in the period from 1917 to 1928.

Sections Four and Five, "Reflections on Contemporary Civilization" and "Aesthetics," have been edited by Richard Handler. Section Four contains Sapir's previously-published essays and book reviews on social and political topics of the day. Written primarily for a general audience, they show Sapir taking a role we might now call that o'( the "public intellectual," bringing the insights of anthropology to bear upon con- temporary public issues. Also included is one item, a review of philo- sophical works, not previously published. Section Five contains essays and reviews on music and contemporary literature. Among Sapir's

/// Culture

works of literary criticism included in this section are a few not pre- viously published.

The reader with a special interest in anthropology should refer to Volume 1 for Sapir's general studies touching on anthropological hn- guislics, and to Volume IV for his early papers in ethnology (including the well-known "Time Perspective in Aboriginal American Culture: A Study in Method" [1916]), his essay-length ethnographic studies, his reviews of ethnological works by his contemporaries, and his admin- istrative reports as Chief Ethnologist of the Anthropological Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (1910-1925). Sapir's anthropological monographs and collections of Native American texts appear in vol- umes VH through XV of 77?^ Collected Works. They include the following (the roman numeral in brackets indicates the volume number): Wishram Texts and Wishram Ethnography (with Leslie Spier) (\1I]; Takclma Texts [VIII]; Yami Texts and Notes on the Culture of the Yana (with Leslie Spier) [IX]; Texts of the Kaibab Pahites and Uintah Lies (Part 11 of The Southern Paiute Language) [X]; Nootka Texts: Tales and Ethnological Narratives with Grammatical Notes and Lexical Materi- als (with Morris Swadesh), with a group of previously unpublished fam- ily origin legends [XI]; Native Accounts of Nootka Ethnography (with Swadesh) with an additional group of unpubHshed Nootka texts [XII]; and Navaho Texts (with Harry Hoijer) [XV]. The previously unpub- lished "Ethnographic Field Notes on the Kaibab Paiute and Northern Ute," edited by Catherine S. Fowler and Robert C. Euler, have ap- peared in Volume X (1992). Additional previously unpubHshed materi- als with ethnographic content will appear as follows: a selection of Yahi texts [IX]; Kutchin and Sarcee texts [XIII]; and Hupa and Yurok texts [XIV].

The reader with a special interest in music should refer to Volume IV, which includes Sapir's papers and reviews in ethnomusicology, as well as a newly-prepared presentation of his Southern Paiute song texts and musical scores (together with a note on the wax cylinder recordings and musical transcriptions).

The editors wish to thank the Sapir family for permission to quote from unpublished materials by Edward Sapir in their possession. The Social Science Research Council gave permission to publish portions of the transcripts of the Hanover Conferences of 1926 and 1930 We are also grateful to the archivists at the Bancroft Library of the University of California at Berkeley for access to the papers of Alfred L. Kroeber and Robert H. Lowie, and to the archivists at the National Museum of

Preface 17

Man, Ottawa (now the Canadian Museum of Civilization) for permis- sion to consult papers relating to Sapir. Portions of the final manuscript for this volume were prepared for publication by Jane McGary.

Additional acknowledgements will be found at the beginning of Sec- tion Two of this volume.

16

/// Culture

works o( literary criticism included in this section are a few not pre- viously published.

The reader with a special interest in anthropology should refer to Volume I for Sapir's general studies touching on anthropological lin- guistics, and to Volume IV for his early papers in ethnology (including the well-known 'Time Perspective in Aboriginal American Culture: A Study in Method" [1916]), his essay-length ethnographic studies, his reviews o( ethnological works by his contemporaries, and his admin- istrative reports as Chief Ethnologist of the Anthropological Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (1910-1925). Sapir's anthropological monographs and collections of Native American texts appear in vol- umes VI 1 through XV of The Collected Works. They include the following (the roman numeral in brackets indicates the volume number): Wishnim Texts and Wishram Ethnography (with Leslie Spier) [Vii]; Takclnia Texts [VIII]; Ycma Texts and Notes on the Culture of the Yunu (with Leslie Spier) [IX]; Texts of the Kaibab Paiutes and Uintah 67f.s- (Part II of The Southern Paiute Language) [X]; Nootka Texts: Tales and Ethnological Narratives with Grammatical Notes and Lexical Materi- als (with Morris Swadesh), with a group of previously unpublished fam- ily origin legends [XI]; Native Accounts of Nootka Ethnography (with Swadesh) with an additional group of unpublished Nootka texts [XII]; and Navaho Texts (with Harry Hoijer) [XV]. The previously unpub- lished "Ethnographic Field Notes on the Kaibab Paiute and Northern Lte," edited by Catherine S. Fowler and Robert C. Euler, have ap- peared in Volume X (1992). Additional previously unpublished materi- als with ethnographic content will appear as follows: a selection of Yahi texts [IX]; Kutchin and Sarcee texts [XIII]; and Hupa and Yurok texts [XIV].

The reader with a special interest in music should refer to Volume IV, which includes Sapir's papers and reviews in ethnomusicology, as well as a newly-prepared presentation of his Southern Paiute song texts and musical scores (together with a note on the wax cylinder recordings and musical transcriptions).

The editors wish to thank the Sapir family for permission to quote from unpublished materials by Edward Sapir in their possession. The Social Science Research Council gave permission to publish portions of the transcripts of the Hanover Conferences of 1926 and 1930. We are also grateful to the archivists at the Bancroft Library of the University of Cahlornia at Berkeley for access to the papers of Alfred L. Kroeber and Robert H. Lowie, and to the archivists at the National Museum of

i

Preface

17

Man, Ottawa (now the Canadian Museum of Civilization) for permis- sion to consult papers relating to Sapir. Portions of the final manuscript for this volume were prepared tor publication by Jane McGary.

Additional acknowledgements will be found at the beginning o\^ Sec- tion Two of this volume.

Section One Culture, society, and the individual

Regna Darnell and Judith T. Irvine, editors

Introduction

Sapir is so well remembered for his work in linguistics that his role in cultural anthropology, represented by a much smaller number o\' publications, has been overshadowed. It is clear, however, that he hoped to make a major contribution to anthropological theory and to the social sciences in general, and that many of his contemporaries looked to him to do so. When Ruth Benedict invited him to address a sympo- sium on anthropological theory in 1938, the invitation reflected Sapir's reputation as cultural anthropologist, and the increasing interest theo- retical issues in anthropology and other social sciences had come to have for him in the preceding dozen years. Unfortunately, by 1938. Sapir was too ill to take up the invitation. Many of his ideas remained unpublished at the time of his death in 1939. Although the bibliography of his published writings reflects the importance these subjects held for him in the late 1920's and throughout the 1930's, this output does not represent the sum of what he had planned to produce.

For many readers today, Sapir's status as a cultural anthropologist probably rests on an even smaller corpus: the papers appearing in David Mandelbaum's (1949) Selected Writings of Edward Sapir. We are pleased to be able to assemble a more complete set of materials here, including some important items never previously published.

The present volume contains all of Sapir's publications, as well as all of his recorded lectures, not previously published, on the concept o( "culture," and on its relationship to the individual as a member of soci- ety. These works derive from the second half of his career, when he was less engaged in fieldwork than in earlier years and more engaged in teaching. It was a period in which social scientists and other American academics increasingly interested themselves in psychology and psychia- try. These trends paralleled events in Sapir's personal life as well (see Darnell 1990, Chapter 7). It was a time, too, when the Boas school o( anthropology, of which Sapir was without question a core member. began to shift its focus from a strong emphasis on culture history and regional comparisons toward the patterning of culture as an integrated system and the impact of culture on the indi\ idual personalit\. I£\en the label of the subdiscipline changed, from "ethnology" to "cultural

-)->

/// Culture

anthropology." This volume, therefore, assembles Sapir's contributions to the emergence of this cultural anthropology.

Sapir's ethnological studies - which differed from those of his Boa- sian contemporaries largely in their greater emphasis on indigenous- language labels for cultural concepts - date primarily from the first half of his career. These studies, as well as many of his ethnographic essays, may be found in Volume IV {Ethnology) of the Collected Works oi Edwani Sapir} That volume also includes his 1916 monograph on the methodology of culture-historical studies, "Time Perspective in Ab- original American Culture," Sapir's most important statement within the framework of early Boasian anthropology.

As "Time Perspective" shows, Sapir - the paramount linguist among the Boasians - first became a theoretician of culture within the context of historical inference, in which linguisfic evidence loomed large. Al- though this essay includes much discussion of ethnological evidence considered in its own right, Sapir argued that linguisfic facts, partly by virtue of their integrafive formal framework, maintain their historical character through diffusional processes as no other cultural facts do. Yet, his vision of historical methodology in this essay broadens out- ward, from the specifically linguistic work he had recently been engaged in (that is, especially, the effort to group the languages of native North America into a small number of linguistic stocks), toward a comprehen- sive view of culture, within which language is included. His final com- ments, emphasizing the psychological setting of cultural elements equ- ally with the geographical, anficipate his later concerns.

Although Sapir continued to pubHsh ethnographic reports after 1916, his interests soon expanded well beyond the description and histori- cally-motivated comparison of North American languages and cultures. The present volume opens with his 1917 paper, "Do We Need the 'Su- perorganic'?", Sapir's first statement on some of the theoretical issues that would occupy much of his later work. This essay, responding to Alfred Kroeber's paper of the same year on "The Superorganic," repre- sents one pole of an ongoing debate within the Boasian school about the concept of culture and its relation to the individual. Sapir accepted Kroeber's argument insofar as it rejected biological explanations for cultural forms. He challenged Kroeber's cultural determinism, however, because it ignored the role of the creative individual in culture and ignored epistemological problems arising in cultural analysis. These themes recur again and again in Sapir's work and permeate the writings assembled in this volume.

One: Culture, Society, and the Individual 23

Beginning with the "Superorganic" paper, the section of this volume entitled "Culture, Society, and the Individual" includes all of Sapir's essay-length works in cultural anthropology and social psychology from the 1920's and 1930's. Two major papers, originally given as conference presentations, are published here for the first time: "Notes on Psycho- logical Orientation in a Given Society" (1926), and "The Cultural Ap- proach to the Study of Personality" (1930). Also previously unpublished are Sapir's comments in discussion sessions at these conferences; his written presentations at the 1930 meeting; his comments at the Confer- ence on Personality and Culture (1935); and his remarks to a meeting of the Committee on Personality in Relation to Culture (1938). It is worth noting the inclusion of a 1936 essay, "The Application of Anthro- pology to Human Relations," which, though published, has been little known, due to its omission from the bibliography of the 1949 Mandel- baum collection {Selected Writings of Edward Sapir). Finally, although it has not been possible to edit Sapir's unpubHshed letters for this vol- ume,-^ we do include an important one that was pubhshed in 1980: Sapir's 1938 letter to Philip Selznick.

The next section, The Psychology of Culture, represents a book for which Sapir negotiated a publication contract with Alfred Harcourt in 1928. Throughout the 1930's, Sapir gave a course of lectures that was to be the basis of the book, but he did not live to complete it. Unlike some of his other unpublished work, which existed in full or partial manuscript at his death, no materials in Sapir's own hand were found for this book apart from the prospectus sent to Harcourt in 1928 and some ensuing correspondence. Nevertheless - following through on an idea initiated by Sapir's widow, Jean McClenaghan Sapir, and Leslie Spier only three months after Sapir's death - a book-length text has been reconstructed by Judith T. Irvine from notes taken by students attending various versions of this course of lectures, given by Sapir during his years at the University of Chicago and Yale University. Pub- lished separately (by Mouton de Gruyter, 1993) in a shorter version and without the analytical apparatus, this work appears here for the first time in its full form, including annotation of sources and explanations permitting the reader to see how the reconstruction was done.

Finally, a section on Assessments of Psychology and Psychiatry assem- bles Sapir's published reviews of works in these fields, reviews which appeared between 1917 and 1928. These reviews afforded him an oppor- tunity to acquaint himself with a body of literature outside the usual anthropological domain but eventually influential within it, and to be-

24

/// Culture

gin working out some of his ideas on psychological topics. These items are grouped separately in this volume because they give a sense of how Sapir read a literature which he first approached as an anthropologist but which he would later adapt to interdisciplinary purposes as well as to a rethinking of anthropology's own theoretical basis. By the late 1920's and the 1930's the effects of his excursions into psychology and psychiatry became evident in his published writing, especially in his elToris to reformulate and refine the concept of culture which stood at the core of anthropology as a discipline.

The first o( these excursions dates from 1917, the same year as the response to Kroeber, which had emphasized the need for a theory of culture that would be accountable to individual psychology and individ- uals' actions. In 1917, however, the study of psychology was far re- nun cd from Sapir's job description: he was in Ottawa, a civil servant responsible for the Canadian government's research on the aboriginal peoples of the Dominion. In 1925, he moved to the University of Chi- cago, where he established effective collaborations with Chicago sociol- ogists and with political scientist Harold D. Lasswell. Although Chi- cago psychologists also figured among his acquaintances, more impor- tant to Sapir's intellectual development in this period was his associa- tion with psychiatrist Harry Stack Sullivan. At Chicago, Sapir's work- ing out of his own theoretical position on culture acquired momentum in these interdisciplinary contexts, which found further support in the emergence of an interdisciplinary social science funded by the Rockefel- ler Foundation.

Sapir's role as an anthropological theorist was already conspicuous in the foundation-sponsored conferences of the late 1920's, and in the newly-founded Social Science Research Council. Indeed, as the only anthropologist who played a central role in these interdisciplinary activ- ities, he had the responsibility of representing the discipline to outsiders. As anthropology's representafive, Sapir refused to allow himself to be dismissed as a mere purveyor of the exotic. His writings for this audi- ence persistently chose examples from the everyday behavior of ordi- nary North Americans. Even when drawing on ethnographic examples, he tried to diminish the aura of exotica, instead showing that the indivi- dual in any society behaves in consistent ways, calibrated by the cukural context within which the behavior occurs and within which it is inter- preted. And if many of his examples concern linguistic behavior, it is because he saw language as a prime exemplar of cultural patterning, and therefore central to anthropological concerns.

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One: Culture, Society, ami the Individual

25

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The Rockefeller Foundation, with its sponsorship of a special seminar on "The Impact of Culture on Personality," was largely instrumental in bringing Sapir to Yale University in 1931. There he also took on various administrative and teaching roles in the departments of anthropology and linguistics; and although he continued to attend conferences, the interdisciplinary initiative was plagued by declines in funding during the Depression. Where his theoretical views on culture were concerned, Sapir's efforts later in the 1930's began to focus more on the discipline of anthropology itself, and less on an interdisciplinary social science. Still, he drew a wide audience both within anthropology and outside it. Even at Yale, despite troubles connected with the university's academic politics, Sapir's course offerings in anthropology were well attended. They also served as an important forum for his intellectual develop- ment. While he "continued presenting linguistic seminars for his post- doctoral students, his large seminars were devoted to his innovations in anthropological theory" (C. F. Voegelin 1984 [1952]: 36).

At the time of Sapir's death in 1939, the generation of cultural anthropologists influenced by his teaching were still quite junior aca- demics, perhaps too young to coalesce into a "school." What did emerge after World War II was the culture and personality school associated with Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, and Abram Kardiner. Although anthropologists today sometimes recall Sapir in connection with that group because of some overlap of interests, his position was actually quite distinct. As their approach became dominant, his became margin- alized.

Mead (1959) saw her school's work as marking a new psychological direction which fundamentally reoriented the Boasian paradigm, while Sapir had seen himself as contributing to the theory of culture from within that paradigm. Some of what made the culture and personality group's efforts "new," however, entailed epistemological difficLiliics for which they were later criticized. Sapir had not tumbled into these pit- falls, and indeed had warned against such errors as confusing cultural norms and patterns with the psychodynamics of actual indi\iduals (see The Psychology of Culture, chapter 9). Moreover, he al\\a\s opposed the label "culture and personality" because it implied that the two terms could be defined contrastively and independently. He preferred to speak of the "psychology of culture," in which anthropology and ps\cholog\ represented different analytical stances with respect to the same phe- nomena. In the process of theoretical refinement, as well as in response to interdisciplinary colleagues, Sapir increasingly added the term "soci-

24 /// Culture

gin working out some of his ideas on psychological topics. These items are grouped separately in this volume because they give a sense of how Sapir read a literature which he first approached as an anthropologist but which he would later adapt to interdisciplinary purposes as well as to a rethinking of anthropology's own theoretical basis. By the late I92()'s and ihc 1930's the effects of his excursions into psychology and psychiatry became evident in his published writing, especially in his etTorts to reformulate and refine the concept of culture which stood at the core of anthropology as a discipline.

The first o\' these excursions dates from 1917, the same year as the response to Kroeber, which had emphasized the need for a theory of culture that would be accountable to individual psychology and individ- uals' actions. In 1917, however, the study of psychology was far re- moved from Sapir's job descripfion: he was in Ottawa, a civil servant responsible for the Canadian government's research on the aboriginal peoples of the Dominion. In 1925, he moved to the University of Chi- cago, where he established effective collaborations with Chicago sociol- ogists and with political scientist Harold D. Lasswell. Although Chi- cago psychologists also figured among his acquaintances, more impor- tant to Sapir's intellectual development in this period was his associa- tion with psychiatrist Harry Stack Sullivan. At Chicago, Sapir's work- ing out of his own theoretical position on culture acquired momentum in these interdisciplinary contexts, which found further support in the emergence of an interdisciplinary social science funded by the Rockefel- ler Foundation.

Sapir's role as an anthropological theorist was already conspicuous in the foundation-sponsored conferences of the late 1920's, and in the newly-founded Social Science Research Council. Indeed, as the only anthropologist who played a central role in these interdiscipHnary acfiv- ities, he had the responsibility of represenfing the discipline to outsiders. As anthropology's representafive, Sapir refused to allow himself to be dismissed as a mere purveyor of the exotic. His writings for this audi- ence persistently chose examples from the everyday behavior of ordi- nary North Americans. Even when drawing on ethnographic examples, he tried to diminish the aura of exotica, instead showing that the indivi- dual in any society behaves in consistent ways, calibrated by the cultural context within which the behavior occurs and within which it is inter- preted. And if many of his examples concern linguistic behavior, it is because he saw language as a prime exemplar of cultural patterning, and therefore central to anthropological concerns.

One: Culture. Socictv. luul flu- lihlivntuul 25

The Rockefeller FoundalicMi. wilh ils sponsorship dI a special seminar on "The impact of Culture on Personality," was largely instrumental m bringing Sapir to Yale University in 1^)31 . There he also took on various atiministralixe aiul leaching roles in the departments of anthrupologv and linguistics; and although he contiiuictl ic^ attend conferences, the interdisciplinary initiative was plagued by declines in funding during the Depression. Where his theoretical views on culture were concerned. Sapir's efforts later in the I930's began to focus more on the discipline of anthropology itself, and less on an interdisciplinary social science. Still, he drew a wide audience both within anthropology and outside it. Even at Yale, despite troubles connected with the university's academic politics, Sapir"s course offerings in anthropology were well attended. They also served as an important forum for his intellectual de\elop- ment. While he "continued presenting linguistic seminars for his post- doctoral students, his large seminars were devoted to his inncn ations m anthropological theory" (C. F. Voegelin 1984 [1952]: 36).

At the time of Sapir's death in 1939, the generation o\' cultural anthropologists influenced by his teaching were still ejuite junior aca- demics, perhaps too young to coalesce into a "school." What did emerge after World War II was the culture and personality school associated with Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, and Abram Kardiner. Although anthropologists today sometimes recall Sapir in connection with that group because of some overlap of interests, his position was actuall\ quite distinct. As their approach became dominant, his became margin- alized.

Mead (1959) saw her school's work as