FOURTH CENSUS

OF CANADA 1901

VOLUME II NATURAL PRODUCTS

OTTAWA

PRINTED BY S. E. DAWSON, PRINTER TO THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY

1904

REPORT ON NATURAL PRODUCTS

FOURTH CENSUS OF CANADA 1901

The tables of the second volume of the Census of 1901 relate to the natural indus- tries of the Dominion, whose products are classed under the general heads of Agriculture, Minerals and Fisheries. Products of the Dairy and of the Forest are grouped with those of Agriculture.

ARCHIBALD BLUE,

Special Census Commissioner.

The Census Office,

Ottawa, December, 1903.

FOURTH CENSUS OF CANADA, 1901.

NATURAL PRODUCTS.

This volume of the census deals with the natural products of the Dominion, and its tables of statistics embrace the agricultural, the mining and the fishing industries. But the term ' natural products ' is more convenient than accurate, as in some aspects and relations the several industries partake of the character of manufactures.

In the general sense agriculture is concerned with the production of crops, live stock and wood or timber.

Under the head of crops is included the production of the staple grains and grasses, together with fruits and vegetables.

Under the head of live stock is included the breeding and growing of farm animals, of horses for useful service, of cattle for beef and dairy products, of sheep for mutton and wool, of swine for pork and bacon, and of poultry for flesh and eggs. Stock-raising, dairying and poultry-raising are the chief branches of the animal industry.

Under the head of wood or timber is included all the products of the forest, whether cut and made on farms or on larger tracts of land purchased or leased from the Crown but not sawn into lumber. Strictly, it is only the wood crop of farms that should be counted with the products of agriculture, but in making up the tables for this volume no distinction has been made between the cuttings on farms and those on lands other- wise occupied.

The statistics of agriculture are presented under the three heads of (1) Agriculture, (2) Dairying, and (3) Forest products, the second of which relates wholly to manufactures of butter, cheese and condensed milk. It is not obvious why the products of flouring and grist mills valued at nearly $32,000,000, of slaughtering and meat packing establish- ments valued at over $22,000,000, or of fruit and vegetable canning factories valued at nearly $3,000,000 should be excluded from agriculture, while the products of butter and. cheese factories valued at over $29,000,000 are included. But a standing practice in agricultural statistics is followed here, and a reason for it is found in the fact that the dairy tables supply figures of quantities of raw materials and products, together with distribution of profits and other details, not usually given in the statistics of other manufactures.

The mining industry in its limited meaning relates to operations of raising and m winning ores, minerals and metals out of the earth ; but in statistical usage the term also embraces the treating of ores and minerals by refining or cleaning processes, such as the smelting of iron ore for the production of pig iron, the milling of gold-bearing ore for the extraction of gold, or the breaking, sorting and washing of coal to prepare it for sale and use. Each of these is a manufacturing process, but the statistics are given in the tables of mineral products.

vi

CENSUS OF CANADA, 1901.

The statistics of fishing relate not alone to the business of catching fish in the seas, lakes and rivers for profit ; but also to the manufacturing operations of curing and canning for the market. The tables, therefore, give figures of kinds, quantities and values of fish caught, of number and value of vessels, boats, fishing material and gear employed, of curing and canning stations and their products, and of the number and wages of men employed in the industry on land and water.

L AGRICULTURE.

The census of agriculture in Canada is presented in tables I. to xliii. In all the tables, except comparative statements (xxxvn. to xliii.), the returns have been compiled to show the statistics of (1) areas of five acres and over as farms (tables I. to vm.), and (2) areas under five acres as lots (tables ix. to xvi.), together with the total of both classes (tables xvn. to xxiv.) and their summaries by provinces (tables xxv. to xxxvi.)1 The practical result is separation of the statistics of rural and urban lands, with full enumeration of the crops and live stock of the Dominion as recorded in the agricultural schedules. This is important in view of the fact that there are census districts of the Dominion in which the urban constitutes more than one-half of the population, while in others it is less than one-tenth, and there is no district within the settled regions of the country wholly^ wanting in agricultural statistics of one kind or another. It must be, as the tables show, that in the case of a very large majority of occupiers of less than five acres use of the land in an agricultural sense is only an incidental occupation, and therefore that as regards means of living such persons are not to be counted in the farming class. The line of division is necessarily conventional ; but it should be drawn somewhere, and a minimum of five acres for a farm held under one control has been fixed upon. With intensive farming it is possible to gain a livelihood on five acres in many localities convenient to good markets, and in adopting a uniform classification of farms and lots throughout Canada a basis is afforded for the study of comparative agriculture as well as some phases of its economics.

Revision is an essential part of the olfice work of a census, and with the simple schedules of population it may be carried on as the counting proceeds. In the more complex ones, however, as in those of agriculture, it is necessary to compare one entry with another, and care and judgment are required for the elimination of error. For example, the total area of farm land occupied should equal the areas owned and leased, and should also equal the areas of improved and unimproved land. It has also to be borne in mind that the same land may be devoted to more than one purpose during the census year, as in the case of orchard ground, which may be in field crops, pasture or small fruits, or two crops may be taken from the same ground in one season, or part of a farm may be fallow and neither in crop nor pasture in the census year. So also con- cerning the unimproved portion of a farm, parts of it may be forest, swamp, marsh or waste land, uubroken prairie, or land from which the timber has been cut and although in grass is not fit for cultivation, for which there are no detailed records in the

1Where grain, fruit and root crops were grown, domestic animals kept, and ornamental or other trees planted in cities, towns and villages, enumerators were instructed to take the records of them (including values) as carefully as the records of crops and animals on farms ; as also the area of land occupied, if not less than a quarter of an acre, and the number of barns and other buildings in use by the head of each family or household, or by any member of it.

CENSUS OF CANADA, 1901.

vii

schedules. And so concerning pasture land, which is not necessarily land cultivated and seeded, but any land, improved or unimproved, for the grazing of domestic animals. Clearly, therefore, the detailed areas of land in crops, in pasture, in forest, etc., cannot be assumed to balance the areas of occupied or of improved and unimproved land ; and where they are found to do so in agricultural statistics there is cause to suspect error.

The revision of agricultural schedules has been made by a staff of trained clerks, working under the general rule of comparing entries in the several schedules, and wherever it has not been possible by comparison to correct or verify figures apparently erroneous, the enumerators have been requested to supply the needed information. But the data of the schedules have usually sufficed for thorough revision.

The unit of area adopted for tables I. to xxiv. and xxxm. to xxxvi. is the census district, which is believed to be suitable enough for the practical objects of information and comparison ; yet owing to the large number of inquiries in the agricultural schedules the statistics thus grouped together with the accompanying summary tables occupy 284 pages of the volume. If prepared and printed by townships and parishes as in former census reports they would fill seven volumes of 570 pages each.

Statistics of Lands and Crops.

The statistics of agriculture as presented in tables I. to xliii. are for the provinces of British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island and Quebec, and the territories of Alberta, Assiniboia and Saskatchewan, whose land; water and total areas are given in table 1 in statute acres.

1. LAND AND WATER AREAS.

Provinces.

Land.

Water.

Total.

acres.

acres.

acres.

236,922,177

1,560,830

238,483,007

41,169,098

6,019,200

47,188,298

17,863,266

47,232

17,910,498

13,483,671

230,100

13,713,771

141,125,330

25,826,306

166,951,636

1,397,991

1,397,991

218,723,687

6,474,874

225,198,561

64,973,212

232,000

65,205,212

56,498,546

384,000

56,882,546

66,460,859

2,414,500

68,875,359

858,617,837

43,189,042

901,806,879

The other parts of the Dominion are so sparsely settled as to have no agricultural statistics. They comprise the territories of Athabaska, Mackenzie, Keewatin, Frank- lin, Ungava and Yukon, with 1,458,066,234 acres land and 37,294,180 acres water. In the whole Dominion the land area is 2,316,684,071 acres and the water area 80,483,222 acres, making a total of 2,397,167,293 acres, which is exclusive of Hudson bay, Ungava

viii

CENSUS OF CANADA, 1901.

bay, the bay of Fundy, the gulf of St. Lawrence and all other tidal waters excepting that portion of the river St. Lawrence between Point de Monts in Saguenay and the foot of lake St. Peter. in Quebec.

FARM AND LOT LANDS.

The land area of the Dominion occupied as farms and lots whose agricultural statistics have been compiled into the tables of this volume by census districts is grouped in summary table 2 by farm and lot holdings to show the number of occupiers, the extent occupied, the tenure of holdings and the condition of the land for the various purposes of agriculture the details of which are given in tables IL x. xvm. and xxv. pp. 6-13, 82-89, 162-169 and 234-235.

2. OCCUPIEKS AND LAND ABBAS.

Schedule of lands.

Farms.1

Lots.1

TotaL

no.

no.

no.

471,833

72,855

544,688

acres.

acres.

acres.

63,334,815

87,523

63,422,338

57,450,076

72,365

57,522,441

5,884,739

15,158

5,899,897

30,083,921

82,112

30,166,033

33,250,894

5,411

33,256,305

16,790,930

955

16,791,885

19,725,016

38,724

19,763,740

11,259,456

16,100

11,275,556

Land in orchard

340,938

13,607

354,545

Land in vegetables and small fruits

103,309

13,208

116,517

Land in vineyards ....

5,497

103

5,600

1,535

26

1,561

Land in forest plantations , . .

3,698

123

3,821

The number of occupiers holding less than one acre is 33,615 and the number holding from one acre to less than five acres is 39,240" the average size of lots being 1-20 acres. Of the whole number of occupiers of lots 58,183 are owners, 13,786 are tenants and 886 are owners and tenants, those of the last class being so described when part of the land is held in fee and part by lease or any like possession.

The occupiers of farms embrace 18,331 who hold five to ten acres, 81,243 who hold 11 to 50 acres, 156,778 who hold 51 to 100 acres, 150,826 who hold 101 to 200 acres, and 64,655 who hold 201 acres and over, the average size of the 471,833 farms being 134 acres. The number of owners is 416,258, of tenants 33,958 and of owners and tenants 21,617.

Taking 858,617,837 acres as the land area of the provinces and territories whose census of agriculture has been enumerated, the extent occupied as farms and lots is only 7*38 per cent of the whole. The land owned is 90*70 per cent and the land leased or

1 Here as well as elsewhere throughout this report farms are understood to mean areas of five acres and upwards, and lots to mean areas of less than five acres.

CENSUS OF CANADA, 1901.

ix

rented is 9*30 per cent of the area occupied as farms, and of the relatively small area occupied as lots 82*68 per cent is owned and 17-32 per cent is leased or rented. About 94 per cent of the land in lots is in an improved state, with 45 per cent in crops and 31 per cent in fruit trees and vegetables. The land in farms comprises 47*5 per cent in an improved and 52*5 per cent in an unimproved state.

The unimproved land of lots and farms consists of 16,791,885 acres in forest and 16,464,420 acres in various conditions, such as unbroken prairie, swamp, marsh, rock or waste land, and land in rough or natural pasture but not in a state fit for cultivation.

Field crops, fruits and vegetables, and pasture to a large extent, occupy the improved land. But as part may be in fallow and part (like orchard and garden) may grow two crops in the year, and as pasture may include unimproved tracts, the extent devoted to the several purposes cannot be definitely apportioned. It is near enough to say that 65*5 per cent is in field crops, 1*6 per cent in orchard, garden, vineyard and nursery, and the rest in pasture and fallow ground.

Forest plantations on farms and lots are shown to have an area of 3,821 acres, and the number of trees planted for shade and ornament is 7,145,653, being an average of 13 for every farm and 12 for every lot.

It is not possible to make an accurate comparison of the number of occupiers or the area of land occupied in 1891 and 1901 for agricultural purposes, as these statistics refer to all occupied lands in the former, 1 and only to lands of agricultural production in the latter year. Woodland and forest in the former year's returns included all unimproved lands, whereas in those of the latter the forest area is given separately, but is also counted as part of the unimproved land.

There are two other respects in which doubts and difficulties arose when the usual comparisons came to be made of the agricultural tables of 1891 and 1901, one relating to areas of field crops for the Dominion and the other to areas and products of field crops for Quebec.

The area of all field crops in the Dominion as published in table xvi. of occupied lands, volume II. of the census of 1891 (pp. 244-349) is given as 19,904,826 acres, and the area by the census of 1901 is only 19,763,740 acres, being 141,086 acres less in the latter than in the former year. The tables of 1901 are compiled from the detailed returns of field crops in No. 5 of the agricultural schedules, and their area agrees with the aggregate area of field crops recorded in column 9 of schedule No. 4. An investi- gation of the 1891 schedules and the tables of agricultural areas in volume n. and volume iv. resulted in showing that two different methods had been employed in compiling the records of that year. In table xvi. of volume n. the area of land under crops in all the older provinces of the Dominion was ascertained by difference, being the improved land less land in pasture, orchard and garden, and it is greater than the actual area of crops compiled from the schedules by 3,759,389 acres. For Manitoba and British Columbia the areas in crops in volume II. were compiled from the schedules, but omitted hay and five minor crops, and instead of the aggregate area being greater than the details given in volume iv. it is 67,660 acres less, while in the territories it is 4,415 acres more. Table 3 gives the areas of field crops of provinces by the census of 1891, made up from volume II. and volume iv. respectively.

1 Victoria, B.C., may be taken as an extreme illustration. Table I. of volume I. (1891) gives its total area as 45,843 acres, and table xvi. of volume ir. gives it an area of occupied land of 2,029,620 acres. Dis- crepancies of a like sort occur in each of 23 districts in the old settled parts of Quebec, ranging from 1,464 acres in Jacques Cartier to 32,814 in Bagot. The total area of the 23 districts by volume I. is 2,624,003 acres, and volume n. gives the occupied land in them an area of 3,015,083 acres.

X

CENSUS OF CANADA, 1901.

3. AREAS OF FIELD CROPS IN 1891 CENSUS.*

Provinces.

By vol. II.

By vol. iv.

acres.

acres.

British Columbia

Manitoba.

New Brunswick

Nova Scotia

Ontario

Prince Edward Island. .

Quebec

The territories

50,126 1,226,439 1,018,704 969,548

115,184 1,229,041

763,248

723,825 8,166,499

409,940 4,610,587

190,358

10,366,281

536,175 5,542,780 194,773

Totals

19,904,826

16,208,682

The corrections in this table, however, are not sufficient for the province of Quebec, as they do not touch the error resulting from a neglect to change the land measure employed over a large extent of that province to the standard measure of statute acres. Under the feudal system of the French regime the subdivisions of the colony consisted of seigniories and fiefs, and the arpent was the standard measure of the surveys into farm lots, but after the British conquest the unoccupied lands of the Crown were laid out as townships and the statute acre became the unit of measure for farm lots, as in the districts of Brome, Compton, Drummond and Arthabaska, -Missisquoi, Pontiac, Shefford, Sherbrooke, Stanstead, Ottawa, Huntingdon, Richmond and Wolfe, and a number of townships elsewhere. There are consequently two land measures in use throughout Quebec, the arpent of the old survey and the acre of the new, and at every census-taking enumerators have been instructed what to do in taking the records of areas. For convenience only one form of schedule has been employed, and the follow- ing extract from the manual of instructions in 1891 will serve to show the practice of work in the field.

' In the French districts of the province of Quebec, where the arpent is used instead of the acre and the minot instead of the bushel, the enumerator is simply required to enter the quantity given by the informant : the reduction will be made in the compiling.'

The compiling was the work of the staff employed in the census office at Ottawa, but unfortunately the reduction of arpents to acres and minots to bushels was over- looked and as a consequence all statistics of acres and bushels in the agricultural tables of volume n. and volume iv. for Quebec are inaccurate.2 The area of field crops in Quebec was neither 5,542,780 acres as shown by the table of volume II. nor 4,610,587 acres as ascertained from the tables of volume iv. By the reduction of arpents to acres in the so-called French districts, the old seigniories and fiefs, it was only 4,064,716 acres, or 1,478,064 acres less than the area given in volume II.

1 Areas of buckwheat, beans, flax, tobacco and hops were not recorded in 1891, and in this table they are as computed from products on the basis of the average yields per acre of the same crops for the census of 1901. Their aggregate area is under 360,000 acres. Areas of rye, pease and corn, not printed in volume IV., have been taken from the MS. tables of agriculture for 1891 in the census office.

2 The arpent is0'845 of an acre and the minot is 1 073 of a bushel, (1,000 arpents = 845 acres, and 1,000 minots = 1,073 bushels), and one of the practical effects of failure to reduce arpents to acres and minots to bushels is to show a low average of production per acre.

CENSUS OF CANADA.

xi

The first result of the two corrections is to give a total area of only 15,662,811 acres of land under field crops in the 1891 census year for the whole Dominion instead of 19,904,826 acres as given in table xvi. of volume n. This is a reduction of 4,242,015 acres ; and as the area of field crops in the 1901 census year is 19.763,740 acres, the second result is to show an increase of 4,100,929 acres or 26 per cent in the decade in place of a lessened area of 141,086 acres.

ORCHARD AND GARDEN AREAS AND PRODUCTS.

The area of orchard land is less than in 1891 by nearly 24,000 acres according to the records, but the total area devoted to fruit culture and vegetables is greater by 13,761 acres. Table 4 gives the statistics of each census year for orchards, small fruits and vegetables, nurseries and vineyards.

4. ORCHARDS, FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, 1891-1901.

Fruit lands.

1891.

1901.

acres.

acres.

378.3961

354,545

Vegetables and small fruits

77,140

116,517

Nurseries

2,975

1,561

5,951

5,600

Total

464,462

478,223

The statistics of fruit and fruit trees for 1901 are presented fully in tables ill. xi. xix. and xxvi. They give the number of fruit trees and grape vines in bearing and non- bearing state and the quantity of each kind of fruit in the census year, together with the production of small fruits and of maple sugar and syrup. A summary of those tables for the Dominion classed by kinds of fruits, together with the fruit crop of the 1891 census, is given in table 5.

5. FRUIT TREKS AND FRUITS, 1891-1901. 4

Kinds.

Non- bearing.

Bearing.

Quantities of fruit.

1891.

1901.

no.

no.

bush.

bush.

4,028,086

11,025,789

7,563,894

18,626,186

Peach trees

481,790

819,985

43,690

545,415

Pear trees.

344,808

617,293

229,2*3

531,837

Pluin trees

963,426

1,452,269

269,631

557,875

Cherry trees

385,228

903,140

197,090

336,751

Other fruit trees. Maple sugar

37,555 475,243

141,870 2,308,353

324,789 lb.

12,252,331 25,0S8,274

70,396 lb.

24,302,634

qts. 21.707,791

lb.

17,804,825

1 The area in orchard in 1891 is got by deducting from the total area of gardens and orchards in volume II. the areas of market gardens, nurseries and vineyards in volume IV. 12 In the census of 1891 the number of fruit trees was not taken.

xii

CENSUS OF CANADA, 1901.

The whole number of bearing and non-bearing fruit tsees in 1901 was 21,201,239, the former being to the latter as 70 to 30. The number of apple trees was 15,053,875, of peach trees 1,301,775, of pear trees 962,101, of plum trees 2,415,695, of cherry trees 1,288,368, and of other fruit trees 179,425. The total of fruit trees on farms was 19,636,446 and on lots 1,564,793. The yield of fruit trees on farms was 19,160,946 bushels and on lots 1,507,514 bushels. The total yield was 20,668,460 bushels, which is 12,040,083 or 139*5 per cent more than in 1891. The yield of grapes in the last census year was nearly twice as large as in the former. The average yield of fruit in the season of 1900 (exclusive of grapes and small fruits) was 40 bushels for each farm and 20 bushels for each lot.

AREAS AND PRODUCTS OP FIELD CROPS.

The statistics of field crops are contained in tables in. iv. xii. xiii. xx. xxi. xxvii. and xxvm. The aggregates for the Dominion of areas and products are shown for each kind of crop for the two census years 1891 1 and 1901 in table 6.

6. STATISTICS OP FIELD CROPS.

Kinds of crops.

1891.

1901.

acres.

bushels.

acres.

bushels.

2,701,213

42,223,372

4,224,542

55,572,368

868,464

17,222,795

871,800

22,224,366

Oats

3,961,356

83 428,202

5,367,655

151,497,407

Rye

122,102

1,341,325

176,679

2,316,793

195,101

10,711,380

360,758

25,875,919

293,307

4,994,871

261,726

4,547,159

925,375

14,823,764

670,320

12,348,943

43,097

800,015

46,634

861,327

273,490

7,267,621

16,236

138,844

23,086

172,222

149,780

} 346,036

{ ::

138,495

Potatoes.

450,190

53,490,857

448,743

55,362,635

148,143

49,679,636

205,160

76,075,642

tons.

tons.

Hay

5,931,548

7,693,733

6,543,423

7,852,731

Forage (winter feed-

ing)

209,362

1,251,327

Forage (summer

66,988

lb.

lb.

ToImicco

4,765

4,277,936

11,906

11,266,732

1,914

1,126,230

1,468

1,004,216

Summary of crops

bush.

bush.

9,110,015

175,545,724

12,253,604

282,511,903

16,236

484,880

23,086

460,497

598,333

103,170,493

653,903

131,438,277

tons.

tons.

Hay and forage . .

5,931,548

7,693,733

| 6,819,773

9,104,058

lb.

lb.

Tobacco and hops

6,679

5,404,166

13,374

12,270,948

1 The area of land in crops according to table xvi. of volume tt. census of 1891, is 19,904,826 acres ; but corrected by the details of crops in tables n. and rv. of volume rv., and by conversion of arpents into

CENSUS OF CANADA, 1901.

xiii

The area in field crops in the census year 1901 was larger than in the 1891 year by 4,100,929 acres, being an increase of 26 per cent. In wheat the increase was 1,523,329 acres, or 56 4 per cent ; in oats it was 1,406,299 acres, or 35 5 per cent; in corn it was 165,657 acres, or 85 per cent ; and in hay it was 611,875 acres or 10 per cent. Barley, rye, buckwheat and pease show decreased areas ; but for all grains the increase was 3,143,589 acres, or 34 5 per cent. This includes mixed grains, which were not enumerated separately in 1891. The area in potatoes is less in 1901 than in 1891, but all field roots show an increase of 55,570 acres or 9 3 per cent. Forage crops like mixed grains were not enumerated in 1891, but counted with hay the combined area makes an increase of 888,225 acres or 15 per cent.

In the yield of field crops grains show an increase of 106,966,179 bushels or 60*87 per cent; roots an increase of 28,267,784 bushels, or 27" 4 percent; hay and forage an increase of 1,410,325 tons, or 18-32 per cent ; and tobacco an increase of 6,988,796 lb. or 156-33 per cent. There were small decreases in the yields of seeds and hops.

FIELD CROPS BY PROVINCES.

Table 7, pp. xiv to xvii, gives the areas and products of the different kinds of field crops for the census years 1891 and 1901 by provinces. A study of them will show the changes that went on during the decade in the several regions of the Dominion, partly as a result of the opening up of the prairies of the Northwest, so suitable for production of wheat and oats, and partly also as a result of the development of dairying and stock- raising in all provinces of the Dominion.

British Columbia is not primarily an agricultural province. The minerals of the mountains have hitherto been the chief attraction for men of adventure and capital ; but no doubt in time, with the development of mining, agriculture will become

acres in the seigniories of Quebec, the actual area in crops was only 15,662,811 acres. The areas by pro- vinces are shown to be

Provinces.

By vol. ii.

By correction.

acres.

acres.

50,126

115,184

1,226,439

1,229,041

1,018,704

763,248

969,548

723,825

10,366,281

8,166,499

536,175

409,940

5,542,780

4,064,716

194,773

190,358

Totals

19,904,826

15,662,811

The areas of pease, corn and rye were not printed in the volume but have been taken from the MS. tables, and the areas of a few minor crops have been computed from their yields on the averages of the same crops in the last census year. Corrections have also been made in the products of crops in 1891 enumerated by minots in the parishes of Quebec counties by conversion of minots into bushels.

There is no doubt that in 1871 and 1881 the area of land under crops was computed in the same way as in 1891, namely, by counting as such area all the improved land less land in garden, orchard and pasture. The total area under crops in 1871 is given in the printed report as 11,820,358 acres, and in 1881 as 15,112,284 acres. But the only crops for which areas were recorded in the schedules of those years are wheat, hay and potatoes, and therefore data are lacking for a computation ot areas of all land under crops, especially for years in which as indicated by exports the field crops were a comparative failure. It appears to be almost certain, however, that the areas of land under crops given for 1871 and 1881 are much too great.

CENSUS OF CANADA, 1901.

7. COMPARATIVE TABLE OF FIELD CROPS, 1891-1901.

Kinds of crops.

1891.

1901.

acres.

quantities.

acres.

quantities.

115,184

bushels.

171,447

bushels.

Wheat

15,156

388,300

15,967

359,419

Barley

2 228

79,024

2,232

73 790

0*\ts

24,148

943,088

34,366

1,442,566

Rye

358

6,141

730

17,328

86

3,938

51

1,849

"RtifL* wKm t

8

276

55

1,899

2,640

85,774

2,949

60,074

Beans

153

4,888

56

1,780

lxed 1 r r 'i 1 us

570

13,669

Flax seed

91

364

1

4

Orass seed

\ 1,658

466

MiAVAi1 <tt'ri

150

Potatoes

4,213

685,802

8,207

955,946

Field roots

1,443

516,242

1,980

635,988

tons.

tons.

Hay

64,611

102,146

102,752

170,187

Forage crops (winter feeding) .

665

3,256

Forage crops (summer feeding)

543

lb.

lb.

Tobacco

1

343

A, 61

61,830

48

55,288

262

299,717

AIamto\)a

1,229,041

bushels.

2,756,106

bushels.

Wheat

896,622

16,092,220

1,965,200

18,353,013

Barley

DO, DUO

1 A no 400 l,40Z,4oo

2,666,803

Oats

256,211

8,370,212

573,858

10,592,660

Rye

951

12,952

937

7,085

Com in ear

96

3,429

62

1,944

Buckwheat

8

178

56

1,294

Pease

626

10,872

406

4,950

Beans. .

23

434

38

710

Mixed grains

769

13,323

Flax seed

6,089

34,588

14,404

81,898

Grass seed .

| 849

282

Clover seed

15

Potatoes.

9,791

1,757.231

16,042

1,920,794

2,102

547,559

978

232,243

tons.

tons.

Hay

485,230

477,859

Forage crops (winter feediug).

42,604

53,191

Forage crops (summer feeding)

1,063

lb.

lb.

3

1,807

10

6,365

14

1,022

7

650

CENSUS OF CANADA, 1901.

7. comparative table of field orops, 1891-1901 Continued.

Kinds of crop9.

1891.

1901.

Quantities.

736,248

bushels.

897,417

bushels.

17,306

209,809

26,990

381,699

0,141

100,917

4,581

99,050

157,176

3,025,329

186,932

4,816,173

Rye.

376

6,321

188

2,809

501

21,021

259

12,509

60,038

1,136,528

73,521

1,390,885

1,842

24,352

1,707

16,808

1,060

20,137

709

13,573

1,230

27,706

IP] Q V » ( * ( U \

92

459

57

283

{ 4,947

2,376

720

42,703

4,827,a30

40,330

4,649,059

5,075

974,363 tons.

7,119

2,070,486 tons.

470,834

476,069

549,538

512,584

Forage crops (winter feeding).

3,473

7,687

Forage crops (summer feeding)

••

••

lb.

665

••

lb.

3

702

2

587

101

27,791

116

31,775

723,825

bushels.

730,146

bushels.

14,157

165,806

16,334

248,476

11,992

227,530

7,710

181,085

94,117

1,559,842

91,087

2,347,598

1,688

23,500

1,018

15,702

411

16,890

177

9,358

8,782

184,421

9,371

196,498

1,184

19,536

156

3,067

1,290

24,950

824

16,084

2,900

90,869

83

410

••

58

{ 2,117

••

548

1

44,154

5,113,612

37,459

4,394,413

6,843

1,349,076 tons.

6,557

2,074,806

ti 'lis.

H»y

539,057

632,391

554,371

658,330

Forage crops (winter feeding) .

1,592

5,642

Forage crops (summer feeding)

lb.

590

lb.

1

228

560

66

18,192

4,571

CENSUS OF CANADA, 1901.

7. COMPARATIVE TABLK OF FIELD CROPS, 1 891-1901— Continued.

: 1

Kind 8 of crops.

1891.

1901.

acres.

quantities.

acres.

quantities .

8,166,499

bushels.

9,212,478

bushels.

Wheat

1,430,532

21,314,582

1,487,633

28,418,907

Barley

681 073

13,419,354

586,010

16,087 862

Oats

2,053,105

47,160,246

2,707,357

88,138,974

Rye

92,663

1,064,345

151,916

2,032,385

Corn in ear

176,295

9,835,737

331,641

24,463,694

Buckwheat

101,625

1,470,511

73,038

1,056,998

PfilSC

763,491

12,760,331

586,857

11,351,646

36,473

664,541

42,086

767,255

Mixed grains

117,020

3,365,554

Flax seed

6,775

71,339

6,388

67,276

Grass seed

80,339

{ 236,819

Olover seed

133,744

Potatoes

179,663

17,635,151

176,170

20,042,258

Field roots

114,289

41,200,779

169,387

63,368,463

tons.

tons.

Hay.

2,528,894

3,465,633

2,606,316

2,852,465

Foia^e crops (winter feeding").

••

117,329

939,311

Forage crops (summer feeding)

••

49,221

lb.

lb.

Tobacco

281

314,086

3,144

3,503,739

Hops

1,340

837,647

965

603,075

Prince Edward Island

409,940

bushels.

447,737

bushels.

Wheat

44,703

613,364

42,318

738,679

Barley

7,594

147,880

4,563

105,625

Oats

153,924

2,922,552

164.472

4,561,097

Rye

12

221

5

65

Corn in ear

74

2,651

37

834

Buckwheat ..

5,088

84,460

2,993

49,689

256

4,735

148

2,245

Beans

165

2,445

33

496

Alixod grains

6,788

227,146

Flax seed

75

746

28

281

Grass seed . . Clover seed

{ 12,417

8,362 1,419

Potatoes

43,521

7,071,308

33,405

4,986,633

4,411

2,005,453

8,905

3,932,591

tons.

tons.

150,108

132,959

181,996

168,326

Forage crops (winter feeding).

718

3,737

Forage crops (summer feeding

1,309

lb.

lb.

1

795

17

30,994

8

5,637

2

1,425

CENSUS OF CANADA, 190i.

7. comparative table of field cmors, 1891-1901 Concluded.

Kinds of crops.

1891.

1901.

acres.

quantities

acres.

quantities .

4,064,716

bushels.

j 4,704,391

bushel*.

168, 92S

1,646,885

139, 82(

1,968,203

94,464

1,580,197

104, 13E

2,535,597

1,161,03?

17,818, 58£

1,350,031

33,536,677

Rye

25,93S

226,311

19,546

211,287

17,586

826, 17S

28,506

1,384,331

117,738

2,118,197

102,673

1,849,596

155,004

1,912,463

77,982

908,656

3,929

82,501

2,886

61,376

143,729

3,523,507

2,878

29,476

1,881

19,309

-J 86,934

55,622

2,402

Potatoes

122,254

15,861,797

127,205

17,135,739

12,103

2,656,587

9,029

3,526,187

tons.

tons.

Hay

2,178,044

2,243,435

2,548,450

2,581,823

Forage crops (winter feeding) .

27,88(5

200,827

Forage crops (summer feeding)

11,854

lb.

lb.

4,473

3,958,737

8,661

7,655,975

336

180,297

116

62,930

190,358

bushels.

844,013

bushels.

Wheat

113,808

1,792,409

530,274

5,103,972

8,467

215,460

22,897

474,554

Oats

61,637

1,628,344

259,552

6,061,662

Rye.

115

1,529

2,339

30,132

52

1,535

25

1,400

19

300

19

300

332

5,701

115

1,497

4

119

2

53

Mixed grains

484

5,847